The lung and gut microbiome are factors in asthma risk or protection. Relevant elements of the microbiome within both niches include the importance of the early life window for microbiome establishment, the diversity of bacteria, richness of bacteria, and effect of those bacteria on the local epithelium and immune system. Mechanisms of protection include direct anti-inflammatory action or induction of non–type 2 inflammation by certain bacterial colonies. The gut microbiome further impacts asthma risk through the contribution of metabolic products. This article reviews the mechanisms that connect the lung and gut microbiota to asthma development and severity.
- Short-chain fatty acids
- Type 2 inflammation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine