Microfilariae in GaláPagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi)

Genetics, morphology, and prevalence

Jane Merkel, Hugh I. Jones, Noah K Whiteman, Nicole Gottdenker, Hernan Vargas, Erika K. Travis, R. Eric Miller, Patricia G. Parker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) live in small, isolated populations on the westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Between August 2003 and February 2005, 4 field trips, 2 in the cool, dry season (August 2003 and August 2004) and 2 in the hot, rainy season (March 2004 and February 2005), were undertaken; 298 Galápagos penguins and 380 cormorants were sampled for prevalence and intensity of hemoparasites. Microfilariae were found in both the penguins and the cormorants. Blood smears were negative for the presence of other species of hemoparasites. Overall prevalence of microfilariae across seasons was 42.0% in cormorants and 13.8% in the penguins. Intensity of infection was generally low (mean = 3.2-31.7 in 25 fields across seasons and species) with the exception of a few individuals with markedly high intensities of parasites (>300 in 25 fields in 1 cormorant). Prevalence of microfilariae increased significantly over the 4 sampling periods for cormorants, but not for penguins. Prevalences were significantly higher in cormorants than in penguins for 3 of the 4 collecting trips. Male penguins had higher prevalences than females; however, there were no gender differences in cormorants. No relation was detected between body mass and either presence or intensity of parasitism. Morphological characteristics of the microfilariae are also described and specimens from each host species were similar in all characters measured. DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were consistent with the morphological evidence and together demonstrate that the penguins and cormorants are likely to be infected with the same species of microfilariae.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)495-503
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Parasitology
Volume93
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Spheniscidae
Spheniscus
Microfilariae
microfilariae
Phalacrocorax
penguins
hemoparasite
isolated population
parasitism
Islands
body mass
cytochrome
dry season
gender
parasite
blood
Ecuador
DNA
gene
sampling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology

Cite this

Microfilariae in GaláPagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) : Genetics, morphology, and prevalence. / Merkel, Jane; Jones, Hugh I.; Whiteman, Noah K; Gottdenker, Nicole; Vargas, Hernan; Travis, Erika K.; Miller, R. Eric; Parker, Patricia G.

In: Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 93, No. 3, 06.2007, p. 495-503.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Merkel, Jane ; Jones, Hugh I. ; Whiteman, Noah K ; Gottdenker, Nicole ; Vargas, Hernan ; Travis, Erika K. ; Miller, R. Eric ; Parker, Patricia G. / Microfilariae in GaláPagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) : Genetics, morphology, and prevalence. In: Journal of Parasitology. 2007 ; Vol. 93, No. 3. pp. 495-503.
@article{07d9d8e6d82b4ef49e4b70a5a28cf89a,
title = "Microfilariae in Gal{\'a}Pagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi): Genetics, morphology, and prevalence",
abstract = "Gal{\'a}pagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) live in small, isolated populations on the westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina in the Gal{\'a}pagos Islands, Ecuador. Between August 2003 and February 2005, 4 field trips, 2 in the cool, dry season (August 2003 and August 2004) and 2 in the hot, rainy season (March 2004 and February 2005), were undertaken; 298 Gal{\'a}pagos penguins and 380 cormorants were sampled for prevalence and intensity of hemoparasites. Microfilariae were found in both the penguins and the cormorants. Blood smears were negative for the presence of other species of hemoparasites. Overall prevalence of microfilariae across seasons was 42.0{\%} in cormorants and 13.8{\%} in the penguins. Intensity of infection was generally low (mean = 3.2-31.7 in 25 fields across seasons and species) with the exception of a few individuals with markedly high intensities of parasites (>300 in 25 fields in 1 cormorant). Prevalence of microfilariae increased significantly over the 4 sampling periods for cormorants, but not for penguins. Prevalences were significantly higher in cormorants than in penguins for 3 of the 4 collecting trips. Male penguins had higher prevalences than females; however, there were no gender differences in cormorants. No relation was detected between body mass and either presence or intensity of parasitism. Morphological characteristics of the microfilariae are also described and specimens from each host species were similar in all characters measured. DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were consistent with the morphological evidence and together demonstrate that the penguins and cormorants are likely to be infected with the same species of microfilariae.",
author = "Jane Merkel and Jones, {Hugh I.} and Whiteman, {Noah K} and Nicole Gottdenker and Hernan Vargas and Travis, {Erika K.} and Miller, {R. Eric} and Parker, {Patricia G.}",
year = "2007",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1645/GE-1009R.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "93",
pages = "495--503",
journal = "Journal of Parasitology",
issn = "0022-3395",
publisher = "American Society of Parasitologists",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Microfilariae in GaláPagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi)

T2 - Genetics, morphology, and prevalence

AU - Merkel, Jane

AU - Jones, Hugh I.

AU - Whiteman, Noah K

AU - Gottdenker, Nicole

AU - Vargas, Hernan

AU - Travis, Erika K.

AU - Miller, R. Eric

AU - Parker, Patricia G.

PY - 2007/6

Y1 - 2007/6

N2 - Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) live in small, isolated populations on the westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Between August 2003 and February 2005, 4 field trips, 2 in the cool, dry season (August 2003 and August 2004) and 2 in the hot, rainy season (March 2004 and February 2005), were undertaken; 298 Galápagos penguins and 380 cormorants were sampled for prevalence and intensity of hemoparasites. Microfilariae were found in both the penguins and the cormorants. Blood smears were negative for the presence of other species of hemoparasites. Overall prevalence of microfilariae across seasons was 42.0% in cormorants and 13.8% in the penguins. Intensity of infection was generally low (mean = 3.2-31.7 in 25 fields across seasons and species) with the exception of a few individuals with markedly high intensities of parasites (>300 in 25 fields in 1 cormorant). Prevalence of microfilariae increased significantly over the 4 sampling periods for cormorants, but not for penguins. Prevalences were significantly higher in cormorants than in penguins for 3 of the 4 collecting trips. Male penguins had higher prevalences than females; however, there were no gender differences in cormorants. No relation was detected between body mass and either presence or intensity of parasitism. Morphological characteristics of the microfilariae are also described and specimens from each host species were similar in all characters measured. DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were consistent with the morphological evidence and together demonstrate that the penguins and cormorants are likely to be infected with the same species of microfilariae.

AB - Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) live in small, isolated populations on the westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Between August 2003 and February 2005, 4 field trips, 2 in the cool, dry season (August 2003 and August 2004) and 2 in the hot, rainy season (March 2004 and February 2005), were undertaken; 298 Galápagos penguins and 380 cormorants were sampled for prevalence and intensity of hemoparasites. Microfilariae were found in both the penguins and the cormorants. Blood smears were negative for the presence of other species of hemoparasites. Overall prevalence of microfilariae across seasons was 42.0% in cormorants and 13.8% in the penguins. Intensity of infection was generally low (mean = 3.2-31.7 in 25 fields across seasons and species) with the exception of a few individuals with markedly high intensities of parasites (>300 in 25 fields in 1 cormorant). Prevalence of microfilariae increased significantly over the 4 sampling periods for cormorants, but not for penguins. Prevalences were significantly higher in cormorants than in penguins for 3 of the 4 collecting trips. Male penguins had higher prevalences than females; however, there were no gender differences in cormorants. No relation was detected between body mass and either presence or intensity of parasitism. Morphological characteristics of the microfilariae are also described and specimens from each host species were similar in all characters measured. DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were consistent with the morphological evidence and together demonstrate that the penguins and cormorants are likely to be infected with the same species of microfilariae.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34249812612&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34249812612&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1645/GE-1009R.1

DO - 10.1645/GE-1009R.1

M3 - Article

VL - 93

SP - 495

EP - 503

JO - Journal of Parasitology

JF - Journal of Parasitology

SN - 0022-3395

IS - 3

ER -