Miro’s N-Terminal GTPase domain is required for transport of mitochondria into axons and dendrites

Milos Babic, Gary J. Russo, Andrea J. Wellington, Ryan M. Sangston, Migdalia Gonzalez, Konrad E Zinsmaier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mitochondria are dynamically transported in and out of neuronal processes to maintain neuronal excitability and synaptic function. In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GTPase Miro binds Milton/TRAK adaptor proteins linking microtubule motors to mitochondria. Here we show that Drosophila Miro (dMiro), which has previously been shown to be required for kinesin-driven axonal transport, is also critically required for the dynein-driven distribution of mitochondria into dendrites. In addition, we used the loss-of-function mutations dMiroT25N and dMiroT460N to determine the significance of dMiro’s N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains, respectively. Expression of dMiroT25N in the absence of endogenous dMiro caused premature lethality and arrested development at a pupal stage. dMiroT25N accumulated mitochondria in the soma of larval motor and sensory neurons, and prevented their kinesin-dependent and dynein-dependent distribution into axons and dendrites, respectively. dMiroT25N mutant mitochondria also were severely fragmented and exhibited reduced kinesin and dynein motility in axons. In contrast, dMiroT460N did not impair viability, mitochondrial size, or the distribution of mitochondria. However, dMiroT460N reduced dynein motility during retrograde mitochondrial transport in axons. Finally, we show that substitutions analogous to the constitutively active Ras-G12V mutation in dMiro’s N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains cause neomorphic phenotypic effects that are likely unrelated to the normal function of each GTPase domain. Overall, our analysis indicates that dMiro’s N-terminal GTPase domain is critically required for viability, mitochondrial size, and the distribution of mitochondria out of the neuronal soma regardless of the employed motor, likely by promoting the transition from a stationary to a motile state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5754-5771
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume35
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 8 2015

Fingerprint

GTP Phosphohydrolases
Dendrites
Axons
Mitochondria
Dyneins
Kinesin
Mitochondrial Size
Carisoprodol
Drosophila
Microtubule Proteins
Mutation
Axonal Transport
Motor Neurons
Sensory Receptor Cells
Eukaryota

Keywords

  • Miro
  • Mitochondria
  • Transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Miro’s N-Terminal GTPase domain is required for transport of mitochondria into axons and dendrites. / Babic, Milos; Russo, Gary J.; Wellington, Andrea J.; Sangston, Ryan M.; Gonzalez, Migdalia; Zinsmaier, Konrad E.

In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 35, No. 14, 08.04.2015, p. 5754-5771.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Babic, Milos ; Russo, Gary J. ; Wellington, Andrea J. ; Sangston, Ryan M. ; Gonzalez, Migdalia ; Zinsmaier, Konrad E. / Miro’s N-Terminal GTPase domain is required for transport of mitochondria into axons and dendrites. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 2015 ; Vol. 35, No. 14. pp. 5754-5771.
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AU - Babic, Milos

AU - Russo, Gary J.

AU - Wellington, Andrea J.

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AU - Gonzalez, Migdalia

AU - Zinsmaier, Konrad E

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AB - Mitochondria are dynamically transported in and out of neuronal processes to maintain neuronal excitability and synaptic function. In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GTPase Miro binds Milton/TRAK adaptor proteins linking microtubule motors to mitochondria. Here we show that Drosophila Miro (dMiro), which has previously been shown to be required for kinesin-driven axonal transport, is also critically required for the dynein-driven distribution of mitochondria into dendrites. In addition, we used the loss-of-function mutations dMiroT25N and dMiroT460N to determine the significance of dMiro’s N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains, respectively. Expression of dMiroT25N in the absence of endogenous dMiro caused premature lethality and arrested development at a pupal stage. dMiroT25N accumulated mitochondria in the soma of larval motor and sensory neurons, and prevented their kinesin-dependent and dynein-dependent distribution into axons and dendrites, respectively. dMiroT25N mutant mitochondria also were severely fragmented and exhibited reduced kinesin and dynein motility in axons. In contrast, dMiroT460N did not impair viability, mitochondrial size, or the distribution of mitochondria. However, dMiroT460N reduced dynein motility during retrograde mitochondrial transport in axons. Finally, we show that substitutions analogous to the constitutively active Ras-G12V mutation in dMiro’s N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains cause neomorphic phenotypic effects that are likely unrelated to the normal function of each GTPase domain. Overall, our analysis indicates that dMiro’s N-terminal GTPase domain is critically required for viability, mitochondrial size, and the distribution of mitochondria out of the neuronal soma regardless of the employed motor, likely by promoting the transition from a stationary to a motile state.

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