Modeling of reaction steps relevant to deoxyuridylate (dUMP) enzymatic methylation and thymidylate synthase mechanism-based inhibition

Andrzej Leś, Ludwik Adamowicz, Wojciech Rode

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Abstract

Theoretical quantum mechanical ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations on molecular systems, modeling processes related to the specificity of thymidylate synthase inactivation are reported. We considered several steps of the methylation of the substrate dUMP and 4- or 5-mono- and 4,5- bisubstituted dUMP analogs, as well. The following reactions were modeled: the cysteine residue (Cys198 in the L. casei enzyme) nucleophilic attack on the substrate and the substrate C(5)-H proton abstraction. The substrate was modeled by the 1-methyluracil molecule and its structural analogs. The cysteine Cys198 residue was modeled by the methylmercaptane molecule. The substrate-enzyme binary complex was modeled by the 1-methyl-5,6-dihydro-6- thiomethyl-uracil (P1) molecule. The present theoretical calculations suggest that the cysteine nucleophilic attack on the substrate may result in the SH- group addition to the pyrimidine C(5)=C(6) bond in the course of a weakly exothermic reaction. The formerly presumed enolate carbanion appeared to be weakly stable or unstable and it can readily split into the thiol and pyrimidine residues. The s2-thio- (P2) and s2,4-dithio- (P3) substrate analogs should form stable thiolate anions after cysteine residue attachment to the C(6) position of the pyrimidine ring. Studies of the deformed P1 molecule interacting with a water molecule bound to the pyrimidine C(4)=O carbonyl residue allow a suggestion that this water molecule may be directly involved in the C(5)-H proton abstraction and may serve as a proton transmitter between the substrate and the proton acceptor residue, possibly located on the cofactor N10-nitrogen. Interaction of the pyrimidine C(4)=O group, or its modification, with the N5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate N(10) nitrogen atom is suggested as an additional factor influencing the inhibition process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)703-715
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics
Volume15
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1998

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Thymidylate Synthase
Methylation
Cysteine
Protons
Nitrogen
Uracil
Water
Enzymes
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Anions
2'-deoxyuridylic acid
pyrimidine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Structural Biology

Cite this

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title = "Modeling of reaction steps relevant to deoxyuridylate (dUMP) enzymatic methylation and thymidylate synthase mechanism-based inhibition",
abstract = "Theoretical quantum mechanical ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations on molecular systems, modeling processes related to the specificity of thymidylate synthase inactivation are reported. We considered several steps of the methylation of the substrate dUMP and 4- or 5-mono- and 4,5- bisubstituted dUMP analogs, as well. The following reactions were modeled: the cysteine residue (Cys198 in the L. casei enzyme) nucleophilic attack on the substrate and the substrate C(5)-H proton abstraction. The substrate was modeled by the 1-methyluracil molecule and its structural analogs. The cysteine Cys198 residue was modeled by the methylmercaptane molecule. The substrate-enzyme binary complex was modeled by the 1-methyl-5,6-dihydro-6- thiomethyl-uracil (P1) molecule. The present theoretical calculations suggest that the cysteine nucleophilic attack on the substrate may result in the SH- group addition to the pyrimidine C(5)=C(6) bond in the course of a weakly exothermic reaction. The formerly presumed enolate carbanion appeared to be weakly stable or unstable and it can readily split into the thiol and pyrimidine residues. The s2-thio- (P2) and s2,4-dithio- (P3) substrate analogs should form stable thiolate anions after cysteine residue attachment to the C(6) position of the pyrimidine ring. Studies of the deformed P1 molecule interacting with a water molecule bound to the pyrimidine C(4)=O carbonyl residue allow a suggestion that this water molecule may be directly involved in the C(5)-H proton abstraction and may serve as a proton transmitter between the substrate and the proton acceptor residue, possibly located on the cofactor N10-nitrogen. Interaction of the pyrimidine C(4)=O group, or its modification, with the N5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate N(10) nitrogen atom is suggested as an additional factor influencing the inhibition process.",
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T1 - Modeling of reaction steps relevant to deoxyuridylate (dUMP) enzymatic methylation and thymidylate synthase mechanism-based inhibition

AU - Leś, Andrzej

AU - Adamowicz, Ludwik

AU - Rode, Wojciech

PY - 1998

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N2 - Theoretical quantum mechanical ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations on molecular systems, modeling processes related to the specificity of thymidylate synthase inactivation are reported. We considered several steps of the methylation of the substrate dUMP and 4- or 5-mono- and 4,5- bisubstituted dUMP analogs, as well. The following reactions were modeled: the cysteine residue (Cys198 in the L. casei enzyme) nucleophilic attack on the substrate and the substrate C(5)-H proton abstraction. The substrate was modeled by the 1-methyluracil molecule and its structural analogs. The cysteine Cys198 residue was modeled by the methylmercaptane molecule. The substrate-enzyme binary complex was modeled by the 1-methyl-5,6-dihydro-6- thiomethyl-uracil (P1) molecule. The present theoretical calculations suggest that the cysteine nucleophilic attack on the substrate may result in the SH- group addition to the pyrimidine C(5)=C(6) bond in the course of a weakly exothermic reaction. The formerly presumed enolate carbanion appeared to be weakly stable or unstable and it can readily split into the thiol and pyrimidine residues. The s2-thio- (P2) and s2,4-dithio- (P3) substrate analogs should form stable thiolate anions after cysteine residue attachment to the C(6) position of the pyrimidine ring. Studies of the deformed P1 molecule interacting with a water molecule bound to the pyrimidine C(4)=O carbonyl residue allow a suggestion that this water molecule may be directly involved in the C(5)-H proton abstraction and may serve as a proton transmitter between the substrate and the proton acceptor residue, possibly located on the cofactor N10-nitrogen. Interaction of the pyrimidine C(4)=O group, or its modification, with the N5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate N(10) nitrogen atom is suggested as an additional factor influencing the inhibition process.

AB - Theoretical quantum mechanical ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations on molecular systems, modeling processes related to the specificity of thymidylate synthase inactivation are reported. We considered several steps of the methylation of the substrate dUMP and 4- or 5-mono- and 4,5- bisubstituted dUMP analogs, as well. The following reactions were modeled: the cysteine residue (Cys198 in the L. casei enzyme) nucleophilic attack on the substrate and the substrate C(5)-H proton abstraction. The substrate was modeled by the 1-methyluracil molecule and its structural analogs. The cysteine Cys198 residue was modeled by the methylmercaptane molecule. The substrate-enzyme binary complex was modeled by the 1-methyl-5,6-dihydro-6- thiomethyl-uracil (P1) molecule. The present theoretical calculations suggest that the cysteine nucleophilic attack on the substrate may result in the SH- group addition to the pyrimidine C(5)=C(6) bond in the course of a weakly exothermic reaction. The formerly presumed enolate carbanion appeared to be weakly stable or unstable and it can readily split into the thiol and pyrimidine residues. The s2-thio- (P2) and s2,4-dithio- (P3) substrate analogs should form stable thiolate anions after cysteine residue attachment to the C(6) position of the pyrimidine ring. Studies of the deformed P1 molecule interacting with a water molecule bound to the pyrimidine C(4)=O carbonyl residue allow a suggestion that this water molecule may be directly involved in the C(5)-H proton abstraction and may serve as a proton transmitter between the substrate and the proton acceptor residue, possibly located on the cofactor N10-nitrogen. Interaction of the pyrimidine C(4)=O group, or its modification, with the N5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate N(10) nitrogen atom is suggested as an additional factor influencing the inhibition process.

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