Background: Hypertensive patients with established cardiovascular or renal disease (ECVRD) have an added 10-year risk of cardiovascular events, classified by the European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology as 'very high'. Aims: To identify determinants of blood pressure (BP) outcomes in hypertensive patients with and without ECVRD treated in second-line with valsartan. Methods: This was a subgroup analysis comparing patients with and without ECVRD who participated in the PREVIEW study, a 90-day observational prospective effectiveness study of valsartan, conducted in Belgium. Two-level (patients 'nested' under physicians) hierarchical linear and logistic modelling of BP values and BP control (140/90 mmHg; 130/80 mmHg for diabetics) at 90 days was applied to data from 1107 patients with and 2087 patients without ECVRD treated with valsartan by 504 general practitioners. Results: Absolute reductions in BP were similar across subgroups, with minor variations in actual BP levels in general and by subgroup. Fewer patients with versus without ECVRD achieved targets for systolic BP, diastolic BP and combined systolic/diastolic BP control. Variability in BP values and control at 90 days attributable to a physician-level class effect ranged from 24.6% to 28.1% and 15.0% to 22.4%, respectively. Physician- and patient-related determinants of 90-day BP outcomes varied considerably between the two subgroups. Conclusion: Several determinants of BP outcomes were identified comparing patients with and without ECVRD, including amenable physician-level and patient-level factors and warning signs for continued risk of uncontrolled BP. ECVRD patients present with differential characteristics, conditions and determinants that mandate individualized attention to complement general evidence-based antihypertensive treatment.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Renal disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine