Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope

Maciek Wielgus, Kazunori Akiyama, Lindy Blackburn, Chi Kwan Chan, Jason Dexter, Sheperd S. Doeleman, Vincent L. Fish, Sara Issaoun, Michael D. Johnson, Thomas P. Krichbaum, Ru Sen Lu, Dominic W. Pesce, George N. Wong, Geoffrey C. Bower, Avery E. Broderick, Andrew Chael, Koushik Chatterjee, Charles F. Gammie, Boris Georgiev, Kazuhiro HadaLaurent Loinard, Sera Markoff, Daniel P. Marrone, Richard Plambeck, Jonathan Weintroub, Matthew Dexter, David H.E. Macmahon, Melvyn Wright, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Keiichi Asada, Rebecca Azulay, Anne Kathrin Baczko, David Ball, Mislav Baloković, Enrico Barausse, John Barrett, Dan Bintley, Wilfred Boland, Katherine L. Bouman, Michael Bremer, Christiaan D. Brinkerink, Roger Brissenden, Silke Britzen, Dominique Broguiere, Thomas Bronzwaer, Do Young Byun, John E. Carlstrom, Shami Chatterjee, Ming Tang Chen, Yongjun Chen, Ilje Cho, Pierre Christian, John E. Conway, James M. Cordes, Geoffrey B. Crew, Yuzhu Cui, Jordy Davelaar, Mariafelicia De Laurentis, Roger Deane, Jessica Dempsey, Gregory Desvignes, Sergio A. Dzib, Ralph P. Eatough, Heino Falcke, Ed Fomalont, Raquel Fraga-Encinas, Per Friberg, Christian M. Fromm, Peter Galison, Roberto Garciá, Olivier Gentaz, Ciriaco Goddi, Roman Gold, José L. Gómez, Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz, Minfeng Gu, Mark Gurwell, Michael H. Hecht, Ronald Hesper, Luis C. Ho, Paul Ho, Mareki Honma, Chih Wei L. Huang, Lei Huang, David H. Hughes, Makoto Inoue, David J. James, Buell T. Jannuzi, Michael Janssen, Britton Jeter, Wu Jiang, Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales, Svetlana Jorstad, Taehyun Jung, Mansour Karami, Ramesh Karuppusamy, Tomohisa Kawashima, Garrett K. Keating, Mark Kettenis, Jae Young Kim, Junhan Kim, Jongsoo Kim, Motoki Kino, Jun Yi Koay, Patrick M. Koch, Shoko Koyama, Michael Kramer, Carsten Kramer, Cheng Yu Kuo, Tod R. Lauer, Sang Sung Lee, Yan Rong Li, Zhiyuan Li, Michael Lindqvist, Rocco Lico, Kuo Liu, Elisabetta Liuzzo, Wen Ping Lo, Andrei P. Lobanov, Colin Lonsdale, Nicholas R. Macdonald, Jirong Mao, Nicola Marchili, Alan P. Marscher, Iván Martí-Vidal, Satoki Matsushita, Lynn D. Matthews, Lia Medeiros, Karl M. Menten, Yosuke Mizuno, Izumi Mizuno, James M. Moran, Kotaro Moriyama, Monika Moscibrodzka, Cornelia Müller, Gibwa Musoke, Hiroshi Nagai, Neil M. Nagar, Masanori Nakamura, Ramesh Narayan, Gopal Narayanan, Iniyan Natarajan, Antonios Nathanail, Roberto Neri, Chunchong Ni, Aristeidis Noutsos, Hiroki Okino, Héctor Olivares, Gisela N. Ortiz-León, Tomoaki Oyama, Feryal �zel, Daniel C.M. Palumbo, Jongho Park, Nimesh Patel, Ue Li Pen, Vincent Piétu, Aleksandar Popstefanija, Oliver Porth, Ben Prather, Jorge A. Preciado-López, Dimitrios Psaltis, Hung Yi Pu, Venkatessh Ramakrishnan, Ramprasad Rao, Mark G. Rawlings, Alexander W. Raymond, Luciano Rezzolla, Bart Ripperda, Freek Roelofs, Alan Rogers, Eduardo Ros, Mel Rose, Arash Roshanineshat, Helge Rottmann, Alan L. Roy, Chet Ruszczyk, Benjamin R. Ryan, Kazi L.J. Rygl, Salvador Sánchez, David Sánchez-Arguelles, Mahito Sasada, Tuomas Savolainen, F. Peter Schloerb, Karl Friedrich Schuster, Lijing Shao, Zhiqiang Shen, Des Small, Bong Won Sohn, Jason Soohoo, Fumie Tazaki, Paul Tiede, Remo P.J. Tilanus, Michael Titus, Kenji Toma, Pablo Torne, Tyler Trent, Efthalia Traianou, Sascha Trippe, Shuichiro Tsuda, Ilse van Bemmel, Huib Jan Van Langevelde, Daniel R. Van Rossum, Jan Wagner, John Wardle, Derek Ward-Thompson, Norbert Wex, Robert Wharton, Qingwen Wu, Doosoo Yoon, André Young, Ken Young, Ziri Younsi, Feng Yuan, Ye Fei Yuan, J. Anton Zensus, Guangyao Zhao, Shan Shan Zhao, Ziyan Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has recently delivered the first resolved images of M87*, the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. These images were produced using 230 GHz observations performed in 2017 April. Additional observations are required to investigate the persistence of the primary image feature- A ring with azimuthal brightness asymmetry- A nd to quantify the image variability on event horizon scales. To address this need, we analyze M87* data collected with prototype EHT arrays in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013. While these observations do not contain enough information to produce images, they are sufficient to constrain simple geometric models. We develop a modeling approach based on the framework utilized for the 2017 EHT data analysis and validate our procedures using synthetic data. Applying the same approach to the observational data sets, we find the M87* morphology in 2009-2017 to be consistent with a persistent asymmetric ring of ∼40 μas diameter. The position angle of the peak intensity varies in time. In particular, we find a significant difference between the position angle measured in 2013 and 2017. These variations are in broad agreement with predictions of a subset of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that quantifying the variability across multiple observational epochs has the potential to constrain the physical properties of the source, such as the accretion state or the black hole spin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number67
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume901
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 20 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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