Morphological and phenological comparisons of two Hopi maize varieties conserved in situ and ex situ

Daniela Soleri, Steven E. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Over the last twenty-five years, crop genetic resources (CGR) have been preserved in genebanks around the world for use by formal plant breeders. Recently conservation of folk crop varieties for direct use by the farmer-breeders of traditional agricultural communities has been suggested as another purpose for CGR conservation. While both in and ex situ CGR conservation programs have been proposed to meet the needs of formal plant breeders and farming communities, the needs and goals of the two groups are different. Formal breeders seek maximum allelic diversity while farmer-breeders are interested in both diversity and population structure that provide local adaptation. Based on the morphological and phenological data analyzed for this study of two Hopi maize varieties conserved in and ex situ, it appears that both genetic shift and genetic drift have occurred ex situ, and that populations conserved ex situ are different from those maintained in situ. These findings suggest that CGR conservation strategies must be re-evaluated in light of the specific conservation goals that are sought.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-77
Number of pages22
JournalEconomic Botany
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1995


  • Hopi Native Americans
  • Zea mays
  • crop genetic resources
  • in situ and ex situ conservation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Horticulture


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