Morphological evolution and systematics of Synthyris and Besseya (Veronicaceae): A phylogenetic analysis

Larry Hufford, Michelle M Mcmahon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Phylogenetic analyses are used to examine the morphological diversity and systematics of Synthyris and Besseya. The placement of Synthyris and Besseya in Veronicaceae is strongly supported in parsimony analyses of nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) criteria provide consistent hypotheses of clades of Synthyris and Besseya based on the ITS data. The combination of morphological characters and ITS data resolve additional clades of Synthyris and Besseya. The results show that Synthyris is paraphyletic to Besseya. In the monophyletic Synthyris clade, Besseya forms part of a Northwest clade that also includes the alpine S. canbyi, S. dissecta, and S. lanuginosa and mesic forest S. cordate, S. reniformis, S. platycarpa, and S. schizantha. The Northwest clade is the sister of S. borealis. An Intermountain clade, comprising S. ranunculina, S. laciniata, S. pinnatifida, and S. missurka, is the sister to the rest of the Synthyris clade. Constraint topologies are used to test prior hypotheses of relationships and morphological similarities. Parametric bootstrapping is used to compare the likelihood values of the best trees obtained in searches under constraints to that of the best tree found without constraints. These results indicate that topologies in which a monophyletic Synthyris is the sister of Besseya are significantly worse than the best ML tree in which Synthyris is paraphyletic to Besseya. Similarly, forcing either the monophyly of all taxa that have deeply incised leaf margins or those that have reniform laminas and broadly rounded apices results in trees that are significantly worse than the best ML tree, in which leaf margin incision and reniform laminas are homoplastic. We propose a new classification for Synthyris that emphasizes monophyletic groups. The new combination Synthyris oblongifolia is proposed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)716-736
Number of pages21
JournalSystematic Botany
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Plantaginaceae
taxonomy
phylogenetics
phylogeny
leaf blade
topology
bootstrapping
Ribosomal DNA
ribosomal DNA
monophyly
new combination
leaves
nucleotide sequences
DNA
analysis
testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

Cite this

Morphological evolution and systematics of Synthyris and Besseya (Veronicaceae) : A phylogenetic analysis. / Hufford, Larry; Mcmahon, Michelle M.

In: Systematic Botany, Vol. 29, No. 3, 07.2004, p. 716-736.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ba93e5bc3b0b4ad5bb396fb904b71b24,
title = "Morphological evolution and systematics of Synthyris and Besseya (Veronicaceae): A phylogenetic analysis",
abstract = "Phylogenetic analyses are used to examine the morphological diversity and systematics of Synthyris and Besseya. The placement of Synthyris and Besseya in Veronicaceae is strongly supported in parsimony analyses of nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) criteria provide consistent hypotheses of clades of Synthyris and Besseya based on the ITS data. The combination of morphological characters and ITS data resolve additional clades of Synthyris and Besseya. The results show that Synthyris is paraphyletic to Besseya. In the monophyletic Synthyris clade, Besseya forms part of a Northwest clade that also includes the alpine S. canbyi, S. dissecta, and S. lanuginosa and mesic forest S. cordate, S. reniformis, S. platycarpa, and S. schizantha. The Northwest clade is the sister of S. borealis. An Intermountain clade, comprising S. ranunculina, S. laciniata, S. pinnatifida, and S. missurka, is the sister to the rest of the Synthyris clade. Constraint topologies are used to test prior hypotheses of relationships and morphological similarities. Parametric bootstrapping is used to compare the likelihood values of the best trees obtained in searches under constraints to that of the best tree found without constraints. These results indicate that topologies in which a monophyletic Synthyris is the sister of Besseya are significantly worse than the best ML tree in which Synthyris is paraphyletic to Besseya. Similarly, forcing either the monophyly of all taxa that have deeply incised leaf margins or those that have reniform laminas and broadly rounded apices results in trees that are significantly worse than the best ML tree, in which leaf margin incision and reniform laminas are homoplastic. We propose a new classification for Synthyris that emphasizes monophyletic groups. The new combination Synthyris oblongifolia is proposed.",
author = "Larry Hufford and Mcmahon, {Michelle M}",
year = "2004",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1600/0363644041744310",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "716--736",
journal = "Systematic Botany",
issn = "0363-6445",
publisher = "American Society of Plant Taxonomists Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Morphological evolution and systematics of Synthyris and Besseya (Veronicaceae)

T2 - A phylogenetic analysis

AU - Hufford, Larry

AU - Mcmahon, Michelle M

PY - 2004/7

Y1 - 2004/7

N2 - Phylogenetic analyses are used to examine the morphological diversity and systematics of Synthyris and Besseya. The placement of Synthyris and Besseya in Veronicaceae is strongly supported in parsimony analyses of nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) criteria provide consistent hypotheses of clades of Synthyris and Besseya based on the ITS data. The combination of morphological characters and ITS data resolve additional clades of Synthyris and Besseya. The results show that Synthyris is paraphyletic to Besseya. In the monophyletic Synthyris clade, Besseya forms part of a Northwest clade that also includes the alpine S. canbyi, S. dissecta, and S. lanuginosa and mesic forest S. cordate, S. reniformis, S. platycarpa, and S. schizantha. The Northwest clade is the sister of S. borealis. An Intermountain clade, comprising S. ranunculina, S. laciniata, S. pinnatifida, and S. missurka, is the sister to the rest of the Synthyris clade. Constraint topologies are used to test prior hypotheses of relationships and morphological similarities. Parametric bootstrapping is used to compare the likelihood values of the best trees obtained in searches under constraints to that of the best tree found without constraints. These results indicate that topologies in which a monophyletic Synthyris is the sister of Besseya are significantly worse than the best ML tree in which Synthyris is paraphyletic to Besseya. Similarly, forcing either the monophyly of all taxa that have deeply incised leaf margins or those that have reniform laminas and broadly rounded apices results in trees that are significantly worse than the best ML tree, in which leaf margin incision and reniform laminas are homoplastic. We propose a new classification for Synthyris that emphasizes monophyletic groups. The new combination Synthyris oblongifolia is proposed.

AB - Phylogenetic analyses are used to examine the morphological diversity and systematics of Synthyris and Besseya. The placement of Synthyris and Besseya in Veronicaceae is strongly supported in parsimony analyses of nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) criteria provide consistent hypotheses of clades of Synthyris and Besseya based on the ITS data. The combination of morphological characters and ITS data resolve additional clades of Synthyris and Besseya. The results show that Synthyris is paraphyletic to Besseya. In the monophyletic Synthyris clade, Besseya forms part of a Northwest clade that also includes the alpine S. canbyi, S. dissecta, and S. lanuginosa and mesic forest S. cordate, S. reniformis, S. platycarpa, and S. schizantha. The Northwest clade is the sister of S. borealis. An Intermountain clade, comprising S. ranunculina, S. laciniata, S. pinnatifida, and S. missurka, is the sister to the rest of the Synthyris clade. Constraint topologies are used to test prior hypotheses of relationships and morphological similarities. Parametric bootstrapping is used to compare the likelihood values of the best trees obtained in searches under constraints to that of the best tree found without constraints. These results indicate that topologies in which a monophyletic Synthyris is the sister of Besseya are significantly worse than the best ML tree in which Synthyris is paraphyletic to Besseya. Similarly, forcing either the monophyly of all taxa that have deeply incised leaf margins or those that have reniform laminas and broadly rounded apices results in trees that are significantly worse than the best ML tree, in which leaf margin incision and reniform laminas are homoplastic. We propose a new classification for Synthyris that emphasizes monophyletic groups. The new combination Synthyris oblongifolia is proposed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4444262712&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4444262712&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1600/0363644041744310

DO - 10.1600/0363644041744310

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:4444262712

VL - 29

SP - 716

EP - 736

JO - Systematic Botany

JF - Systematic Botany

SN - 0363-6445

IS - 3

ER -