Carbon-fiber microelectrodes allow for high spatial and temporal measurements of electroactive neurotransmitter measurements in vivo using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). However, common instrumentation for such measurements systems lack patient safety precautions. To add safety precautions as well as to overcome chemical and electrical noise, a two-electrode FSCV headstage was modified to introduce an active bandpass filter on the electrode side of the measurement amplifier. This modification reduced the measured noise and ac-coupled the voltammetric measurement and moved it from a classical direct current response measurement. ac-coupling not only reduces the measured noise, but also moves FSCV toward compliance with IEC-60601-1, enabling future human trials. Here, we develop a novel ac-coupled voltammetric measurement method of electroactive neurotransmitters. Our method allows for the modeling of a system to then calculate a waveform to compensate for added impedance and capacitance for the system. We describe how first by measuring the frequency response of the system and modeling the analogue response as a digital filter we can then calculate a predicted waveform. The predicted waveform, when applied to the bandpass filter, is modulated to create a desired voltage sweep at the electrode interface. Further, we describe how this modified FSCV waveform is stable, allowing for the measurement of electroactive neurotransmitters. We later describe a 32.7% sensitivity enhancement for dopamine with this new measurement as well as maintaining a calibration curve for dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, ascorbic acid, and serotonin in vitro. We then validate dopamine in vivo with stimulated release. Our developed measurement method overcame the added capacitance that would traditionally make a voltammetric measurement impossible, and it has wider applications in electrode sensor development, allowing for measurement with capacitive systems, which previously would not have been possible.
- Ac voltammetry
- Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes