Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an ascending infection of the female genital tract caused by the spread of bacteria from the vagina to the pelvic reproductive organs and occasionally the peritoneum. The most common causative organisms are sexually transmitted. PID is a significant source of morbidity among reproductive age women both as a cause of abdominal pain and as a common cause of infertility. Its clinical presentation is often nonspecific, and the correct diagnosis may first come to light based on the results of imaging studies. MRI is well suited for the evaluation of PID and its complications due to its superior soft tissue contrast and high sensitivity for inflammation. MRI findings in acute PID include cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis/oophoritis, and inflammation in the pelvic soft tissues. Acute complications include pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscess, peritonitis, and perihepatitis. Hydrosalpinx, pelvic inclusion cysts and ureteral obstruction may develop as chronic sequela of PID. The pathophysiology, classification, treatment, and prognosis of PID are reviewed, followed by case examples of the appearance of acute and subclinical PID on MR images.
- Fitz-Hugh–Curtis syndrome
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Tuboovarian abscess
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology