Multi-Normalization and Interpolation Protocol to Improve Norovirus Immunoagglutination Assay from Paper Microfluidics with Smartphone Detection

Soohee Cho, Tu San Park, Kelly A. Reynolds, Jeong Yeol Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


Norovirus (NoV) is one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis, affecting 685 million people per year around the world. The best preventive measure is to screen water for possible NoV contamination, not from infected humans, preferably using rapid and field-deployable diagnostic methods. While enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) can be used for such detection, the low infectious dose as well as the generally inferior sensitivity and low titer of available NoV antibodies render critical challenges in using EIAs toward NoV detection. In this work, we demonstrated smartphone-based Mie scatter detection of NoV with immunoagglutinated latex particles on paper microfluidic chips. Using only three different concentrations of anti-NoV–conjugated particles, we were able to construct a single standard curve that covered seven orders of magnitude of NoV antigen concentrations. Multiple normalization steps and interpolation procedures were developed to estimate the optimum amount of antibody-conjugated particles that matched to the target NoV concentration. A very low detection limit of 10 pg/mL was achieved without using any concentration or enrichment steps. This method can also be adapted for detection of any other virus pathogens whose antibodies possess low sensitivity and low antibody titer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-615
Number of pages7
JournalSLAS Technology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017



  • biosensor
  • immunoassay
  • smartphone
  • water safety
  • µPAD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Medical Laboratory Technology

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