Multidimensional work sampling to quantify a pharmacokinetics resident's duties

R. Yoon, R. Chapman, D. R. Gourley, J. E. Murphy, E. S. Ward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A multidimensional work-sampling technique was used to quantify a pharmacokinetics resident's duties. Four dimensions were measured: activity, contact, function, and location. A code list of 47 variables was developed to encompass all activities of the resident being observed. A combination of self-reporting and observer reporting was used to test the veracity of the resident's report and to determine whether differences in reporting occurred. Observation was done 20 times a day over a five-week period (24 working days). Random time periods separated the observation points. The observer and the resident recorded 260 and 220 observations, respectively, for a total of 480. The overall reliability measure was 78%, indicating good interobserver agreement. The resident spent about 36% of his time doing work related to pharmacokinetics consultations and 23% of his time attending meetings. He spent a large proportion of time (48.5%) working alone. Much of his remaining time was spent with the Pharm. D. students and the preceptors. Multidimensional work sampling based on a combination of self-reporting and observer reporting is a useful tool for quantifying the work practices of pharmacokinetics residents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1785-1790
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes


  • Education, pharmaceutical
  • Job description
  • Methodology
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacy, institutional, hospital
  • Time studies
  • Workload

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Leadership and Management
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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