We show that a discrete-time, two-species competition model with Ricker (exponential) nonlinearities can exhibit multiple mixed-type attractors. By this is meant dynamic scenarios in which there are simultaneously present both coexistence attractors (in which both species are present) and exclusion attractors (in which one species is absent). Recent studies have investigated the inclusion of life-cycle stages in competition models as a casual mechanism for the existence of these kinds of multiple attractors. In this paper we investigate the role of nonlinearities in competition models without life-cycle stages.
- Coexistence cycles
- Competitive exclusion principle
- Multiple attractors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics