Multiwavelength Light Curves of Two Remarkable Sagittarius A∗ Flares

G. G. Fazio, J. L. Hora, G. Witzel, S. P. Willner, M. L.N. Ashby, F. Baganoff, E. Becklin, S. Carey, D. Haggard, C. Gammie, A. Ghez, M. A. Gurwell, J. Ingalls, Daniel P Marrone, M. R. Morris, H. A. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sgr A∗, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy, is known to be a variable source of X-ray, near-infrared (NIR), and submillimeter radiation and therefore a prime candidate to study the electromagnetic radiation generated by mass accretion flow onto a black hole and/or a related jet. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of this variability is a central challenge to our understanding of accretion flows around SMBHs. Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the flux variations and their time correlations can play an important role in obtaining a better understanding of possible emission mechanisms and their origin. This paper presents observations of two flares that both apparently violate the previously established patterns in the relative timing of submillimeter/NIR/X-ray flares from Sgr A∗. One of these events provides the first evidence of coeval structure between NIR and submillimeter flux increases, while the second event is the first example of the sequence of submillimeter/X-ray/NIR flux increases all occurring within ∼1 hr. Each of these two events appears to upend assumptions that have been the basis of some analytic models of flaring in Sgr A∗. However, it cannot be ruled out that these events, even though unusual, were just coincidental. These observations demonstrate that we do not fully understand the origin of the multiwavelength variability of Sgr A∗ and show that there is a continued and important need for long-term, coordinated, and precise multiwavelength observations of Sgr A∗ to characterize the full range of variability behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number58
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume864
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018

Fingerprint

flares
light curve
near infrared
accretion
Milky Way Galaxy
electromagnetic radiation
x rays
time measurement
radiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Fazio, G. G., Hora, J. L., Witzel, G., Willner, S. P., Ashby, M. L. N., Baganoff, F., ... Smith, H. A. (2018). Multiwavelength Light Curves of Two Remarkable Sagittarius A∗ Flares. Astrophysical Journal, 864(1), [58]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad4a2

Multiwavelength Light Curves of Two Remarkable Sagittarius A∗ Flares. / Fazio, G. G.; Hora, J. L.; Witzel, G.; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L.N.; Baganoff, F.; Becklin, E.; Carey, S.; Haggard, D.; Gammie, C.; Ghez, A.; Gurwell, M. A.; Ingalls, J.; Marrone, Daniel P; Morris, M. R.; Smith, H. A.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 864, No. 1, 58, 01.09.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fazio, GG, Hora, JL, Witzel, G, Willner, SP, Ashby, MLN, Baganoff, F, Becklin, E, Carey, S, Haggard, D, Gammie, C, Ghez, A, Gurwell, MA, Ingalls, J, Marrone, DP, Morris, MR & Smith, HA 2018, 'Multiwavelength Light Curves of Two Remarkable Sagittarius A∗ Flares', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 864, no. 1, 58. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad4a2
Fazio GG, Hora JL, Witzel G, Willner SP, Ashby MLN, Baganoff F et al. Multiwavelength Light Curves of Two Remarkable Sagittarius A∗ Flares. Astrophysical Journal. 2018 Sep 1;864(1). 58. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad4a2
Fazio, G. G. ; Hora, J. L. ; Witzel, G. ; Willner, S. P. ; Ashby, M. L.N. ; Baganoff, F. ; Becklin, E. ; Carey, S. ; Haggard, D. ; Gammie, C. ; Ghez, A. ; Gurwell, M. A. ; Ingalls, J. ; Marrone, Daniel P ; Morris, M. R. ; Smith, H. A. / Multiwavelength Light Curves of Two Remarkable Sagittarius A∗ Flares. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 864, No. 1.
@article{4784679b39f94509aa94a21540668498,
title = "Multiwavelength Light Curves of Two Remarkable Sagittarius A∗ Flares",
abstract = "Sgr A∗, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy, is known to be a variable source of X-ray, near-infrared (NIR), and submillimeter radiation and therefore a prime candidate to study the electromagnetic radiation generated by mass accretion flow onto a black hole and/or a related jet. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of this variability is a central challenge to our understanding of accretion flows around SMBHs. Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the flux variations and their time correlations can play an important role in obtaining a better understanding of possible emission mechanisms and their origin. This paper presents observations of two flares that both apparently violate the previously established patterns in the relative timing of submillimeter/NIR/X-ray flares from Sgr A∗. One of these events provides the first evidence of coeval structure between NIR and submillimeter flux increases, while the second event is the first example of the sequence of submillimeter/X-ray/NIR flux increases all occurring within ∼1 hr. Each of these two events appears to upend assumptions that have been the basis of some analytic models of flaring in Sgr A∗. However, it cannot be ruled out that these events, even though unusual, were just coincidental. These observations demonstrate that we do not fully understand the origin of the multiwavelength variability of Sgr A∗ and show that there is a continued and important need for long-term, coordinated, and precise multiwavelength observations of Sgr A∗ to characterize the full range of variability behavior.",
author = "Fazio, {G. G.} and Hora, {J. L.} and G. Witzel and Willner, {S. P.} and Ashby, {M. L.N.} and F. Baganoff and E. Becklin and S. Carey and D. Haggard and C. Gammie and A. Ghez and Gurwell, {M. A.} and J. Ingalls and Marrone, {Daniel P} and Morris, {M. R.} and Smith, {H. A.}",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3847/1538-4357/aad4a2",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "864",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Multiwavelength Light Curves of Two Remarkable Sagittarius A∗ Flares

AU - Fazio, G. G.

AU - Hora, J. L.

AU - Witzel, G.

AU - Willner, S. P.

AU - Ashby, M. L.N.

AU - Baganoff, F.

AU - Becklin, E.

AU - Carey, S.

AU - Haggard, D.

AU - Gammie, C.

AU - Ghez, A.

AU - Gurwell, M. A.

AU - Ingalls, J.

AU - Marrone, Daniel P

AU - Morris, M. R.

AU - Smith, H. A.

PY - 2018/9/1

Y1 - 2018/9/1

N2 - Sgr A∗, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy, is known to be a variable source of X-ray, near-infrared (NIR), and submillimeter radiation and therefore a prime candidate to study the electromagnetic radiation generated by mass accretion flow onto a black hole and/or a related jet. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of this variability is a central challenge to our understanding of accretion flows around SMBHs. Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the flux variations and their time correlations can play an important role in obtaining a better understanding of possible emission mechanisms and their origin. This paper presents observations of two flares that both apparently violate the previously established patterns in the relative timing of submillimeter/NIR/X-ray flares from Sgr A∗. One of these events provides the first evidence of coeval structure between NIR and submillimeter flux increases, while the second event is the first example of the sequence of submillimeter/X-ray/NIR flux increases all occurring within ∼1 hr. Each of these two events appears to upend assumptions that have been the basis of some analytic models of flaring in Sgr A∗. However, it cannot be ruled out that these events, even though unusual, were just coincidental. These observations demonstrate that we do not fully understand the origin of the multiwavelength variability of Sgr A∗ and show that there is a continued and important need for long-term, coordinated, and precise multiwavelength observations of Sgr A∗ to characterize the full range of variability behavior.

AB - Sgr A∗, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy, is known to be a variable source of X-ray, near-infrared (NIR), and submillimeter radiation and therefore a prime candidate to study the electromagnetic radiation generated by mass accretion flow onto a black hole and/or a related jet. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of this variability is a central challenge to our understanding of accretion flows around SMBHs. Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the flux variations and their time correlations can play an important role in obtaining a better understanding of possible emission mechanisms and their origin. This paper presents observations of two flares that both apparently violate the previously established patterns in the relative timing of submillimeter/NIR/X-ray flares from Sgr A∗. One of these events provides the first evidence of coeval structure between NIR and submillimeter flux increases, while the second event is the first example of the sequence of submillimeter/X-ray/NIR flux increases all occurring within ∼1 hr. Each of these two events appears to upend assumptions that have been the basis of some analytic models of flaring in Sgr A∗. However, it cannot be ruled out that these events, even though unusual, were just coincidental. These observations demonstrate that we do not fully understand the origin of the multiwavelength variability of Sgr A∗ and show that there is a continued and important need for long-term, coordinated, and precise multiwavelength observations of Sgr A∗ to characterize the full range of variability behavior.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053159352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053159352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/aad4a2

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/aad4a2

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85053159352

VL - 864

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

M1 - 58

ER -