Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although its individual components adversely affect cardiac structure and function, the extent to which multiple components of MetS affect the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) has not been well characterized. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is one of the cardiac ECM-modifying enzymes that catalyze the formation of collagen cross-linking. Our objective was to define the effect of diet-induced MetS on the LOX enzyme. MetS was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by administrating a high-fat, high-simple carbohydrate diet for 6 mo. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. The cardiac protein expression and enzymatic activity of LOX were measured. The severity of fibrosis was assessed by histology and hydroxylproline assay. Cardiac diastolic function was assessed by in vivo analysis of the pressure-volume relationship. LOX, matrix metalloproteinases, and their tissue inhibitors were analyzed, and of these three, LOX was most significantly changed in the MetS mice. Despite the blunted gene expression of LOX isoforms, MetS mice demonstrated a significant upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein-1. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the ratio of protein expression of mature to proenzyme LOX by 25.9%, enhanced LOX activity by 50.0%, and increased cardiac cross-linked collagen compared with the controls. This fibrotic response coincided with a marked increase in end-diastolic pressure, increased left ventricular stiffness, and impaired diastolic filling pattern. Our data signify that diet-induced MetS alters the remodeling enzymes, mainly LOX, thereby altering ECM structure by increasing the amount of cross-linking and inducing diastolic dysfunction.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology|
|State||Published - Sep 2009|
- Cross-linked collagen
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)