Natural red chalk in traditional old master drawings

Timothy David Mayhew, Steven Hernandez, Philip L. Anderson, Supapan Seraphin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In the second half of the 15th century, European artists added natural red chalk-raw unprocessed red ocher-to their limited selection of natural chalks for use as a drawing medium. This article presents the history, geology, chemical composition, sources, production, and physical characteristics of natural red chalk when used as a traditional old master drawing material. The historical record was examined to understand natural red chalk's relationship to the development of fabricated red chalks, including artificial red chalks. A total of five different specimens of raw unprocessed natural red chalks from France, Germany, and the United States were obtained and studied using optical microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe their appearance, grain size, and particle morphology, as they relate to the medium's working properties as a drawing material. Their chemical composition was determined using x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. These results were compared with the physical characteristics and chemical composition of traditionally used natural red chalk documented in the historical record.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-115
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of The American Institute for Conservation
Volume53
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Chalk
Old Masters
Chemical Composition
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Physical
Historical Records
Geology
Germany
Particle
History
France
X-ray Diffraction Analysis
Grain Size
Artist
Artificial
Optical Microscopy
Spectroscopy
Energy

Keywords

  • Aggregation
  • Amatita della rossa
  • Amitita
  • Artificial red chalk
  • Aux deux crayons
  • Aux quatre crayons
  • Aux trois crayons
  • Bloodstone
  • Cementation
  • Crayon de sanguine
  • Creta rubea
  • Fabricated red chalk
  • Hematite
  • Iron silicate
  • Levigation
  • Matita
  • Matitatoio
  • Natural red chalk
  • Particle morphology
  • Pierre de sanguine
  • Primary particle
  • Reflectance spectrum
  • Secondary particle
  • Silica
  • Tocchi di lapis rosso
  • Transparency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Conservation
  • Museology

Cite this

Natural red chalk in traditional old master drawings. / Mayhew, Timothy David; Hernandez, Steven; Anderson, Philip L.; Seraphin, Supapan.

In: Journal of The American Institute for Conservation, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2014, p. 89-115.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mayhew, Timothy David ; Hernandez, Steven ; Anderson, Philip L. ; Seraphin, Supapan. / Natural red chalk in traditional old master drawings. In: Journal of The American Institute for Conservation. 2014 ; Vol. 53, No. 2. pp. 89-115.
@article{7dd522d52116453cb91bf5a13a15905d,
title = "Natural red chalk in traditional old master drawings",
abstract = "In the second half of the 15th century, European artists added natural red chalk-raw unprocessed red ocher-to their limited selection of natural chalks for use as a drawing medium. This article presents the history, geology, chemical composition, sources, production, and physical characteristics of natural red chalk when used as a traditional old master drawing material. The historical record was examined to understand natural red chalk's relationship to the development of fabricated red chalks, including artificial red chalks. A total of five different specimens of raw unprocessed natural red chalks from France, Germany, and the United States were obtained and studied using optical microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe their appearance, grain size, and particle morphology, as they relate to the medium's working properties as a drawing material. Their chemical composition was determined using x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. These results were compared with the physical characteristics and chemical composition of traditionally used natural red chalk documented in the historical record.",
keywords = "Aggregation, Amatita della rossa, Amitita, Artificial red chalk, Aux deux crayons, Aux quatre crayons, Aux trois crayons, Bloodstone, Cementation, Crayon de sanguine, Creta rubea, Fabricated red chalk, Hematite, Iron silicate, Levigation, Matita, Matitatoio, Natural red chalk, Particle morphology, Pierre de sanguine, Primary particle, Reflectance spectrum, Secondary particle, Silica, Tocchi di lapis rosso, Transparency",
author = "Mayhew, {Timothy David} and Steven Hernandez and Anderson, {Philip L.} and Supapan Seraphin",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1179/1945233013Y.0000000021",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "53",
pages = "89--115",
journal = "Journal of The American Institute for Conservation",
issn = "0197-1360",
publisher = "Maney Publishing",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Natural red chalk in traditional old master drawings

AU - Mayhew, Timothy David

AU - Hernandez, Steven

AU - Anderson, Philip L.

AU - Seraphin, Supapan

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - In the second half of the 15th century, European artists added natural red chalk-raw unprocessed red ocher-to their limited selection of natural chalks for use as a drawing medium. This article presents the history, geology, chemical composition, sources, production, and physical characteristics of natural red chalk when used as a traditional old master drawing material. The historical record was examined to understand natural red chalk's relationship to the development of fabricated red chalks, including artificial red chalks. A total of five different specimens of raw unprocessed natural red chalks from France, Germany, and the United States were obtained and studied using optical microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe their appearance, grain size, and particle morphology, as they relate to the medium's working properties as a drawing material. Their chemical composition was determined using x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. These results were compared with the physical characteristics and chemical composition of traditionally used natural red chalk documented in the historical record.

AB - In the second half of the 15th century, European artists added natural red chalk-raw unprocessed red ocher-to their limited selection of natural chalks for use as a drawing medium. This article presents the history, geology, chemical composition, sources, production, and physical characteristics of natural red chalk when used as a traditional old master drawing material. The historical record was examined to understand natural red chalk's relationship to the development of fabricated red chalks, including artificial red chalks. A total of five different specimens of raw unprocessed natural red chalks from France, Germany, and the United States were obtained and studied using optical microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe their appearance, grain size, and particle morphology, as they relate to the medium's working properties as a drawing material. Their chemical composition was determined using x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. These results were compared with the physical characteristics and chemical composition of traditionally used natural red chalk documented in the historical record.

KW - Aggregation

KW - Amatita della rossa

KW - Amitita

KW - Artificial red chalk

KW - Aux deux crayons

KW - Aux quatre crayons

KW - Aux trois crayons

KW - Bloodstone

KW - Cementation

KW - Crayon de sanguine

KW - Creta rubea

KW - Fabricated red chalk

KW - Hematite

KW - Iron silicate

KW - Levigation

KW - Matita

KW - Matitatoio

KW - Natural red chalk

KW - Particle morphology

KW - Pierre de sanguine

KW - Primary particle

KW - Reflectance spectrum

KW - Secondary particle

KW - Silica

KW - Tocchi di lapis rosso

KW - Transparency

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84902164000&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84902164000&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1179/1945233013Y.0000000021

DO - 10.1179/1945233013Y.0000000021

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84902164000

VL - 53

SP - 89

EP - 115

JO - Journal of The American Institute for Conservation

JF - Journal of The American Institute for Conservation

SN - 0197-1360

IS - 2

ER -