This review examines how neoliberal policies that include free trade and less government have altered environmental management of industry, forests, water, agricultural land, and fisheries in Latin America. We examine theories and case studies about the privatization and pricing of environmental services and common property resources, the environmental impacts of free trade, and the transfer of environmental management to local or nongovernmental institutions. We conclude that neoliberalism has had some profound influences on the environment and on environmental management in Latin America and that the implementation and impacts of neoliberal policies on local environments have varied greatly by nation and by place as a result of different political, institutional, economic, environmental, and social conditions. Although many studies of neoliberalism and environment paint a negative picture, there are places and people that have adapted well to and benefited from neoliberal policies. Unfortunately, judgments on the success of neoliberal policies are limited by data and by the lack of detailed and balanced case studies.