This chapter will focus on development of DNA sequencing technologies. In the first section, we will review those next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies presently on the market. While NGS has significantly reduced the time and cost of genome sequencing, there is great room for improvement and new technologies. The cycling process involved in NGS is time consuming, subjected to errors of enzymatic reactions. The accuracy can be improved by increasing the number of sequencing runs, however, at the expense of computing power and biochemical reagents. The following sections discuss third generation and future DNA sequencing technologies. The development of new DNA sequencing technologies was originally prompted by the completion of the human genome project. The initial goal was to sequence a human genome for $1000, a project known as the $1000 genome. Current progress has lowered the reagent cost to less than $ 1000 per genome; however, the total cost is much higher than that. Nanotechnology is playing an essential role in developing cost effective sequencing platforms. We will give examples of the applications of nanotechnologies into DNA sequencing. In combining nanotechnologies with unique chemistry and single molecule technologies, we may eventually be able to sequence an individual human genome for less than $100. The last section is devoted to the applications of new DNA sequencing technologies in metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. We will summarize recent applications of NGS in dealing with various complex microbial communities from soil and ocean environments, and detail the advantages of NGS compared to the traditional sequencing technologies. We will also discuss various experimental and bioinformatics challenges associated with microbial sample preparation, DNA/RNA isolation, and analysis of large sequence datasets.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Metagenomics and its Applications in Agriculture, Biomedicine and Environmental Studies|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||28|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)