A limited number of nitric oxide (NO)-generating drugs are available for clinical use for acute and chronic conditions. Most of these agents are organic nitrates, which do not directly release NO; tolerance to the drugs develops, in part, as a consequence of their conversion to NO. We synthesized nitrosyl-cobinamide (NO-Cbi) from cobinamide, a structural analog of cobalamin (vitamin B12). NO-Cbi is a direct NO-releasing agent that we found was stable in water, but under physiologic conditions, it released NO with a half-life of 30 mins to 1 h. We show in five different biological systems that NO-Cbi is an effective NO-releasing drug. First, in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells, NO-Cbi induced phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, a downstream target of cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Second, in isolated Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubules, NO-Cbi-stimulated fluid secretion was similar to that stimulated by Deta-NONOate and a cGMP analog. Third, in isolated mouse hearts, NO-Cbi increased coronary flow much more potently than nitroglycerin. Fourth, in contracted mouse aortic rings, NO-Cbi induced relaxation, albeit to a lesser extent than sodium nitroprusside. Fifth, in intact mice, a single NO-Cbi injection rapidly reduced blood pressure, and blood pressure returned to normal after 45 mins; repeated NO-Cbi injections induced the expected fall in blood pressure. These studies indicate that NO-Cbi is a useful NO donor that can be used experimentally in the laboratory; moreover, it could be developed into a vasodilating drug for treating hypertension and potentially other diseases such as angina and congestive heart failure.
- Nitric oxide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)