No evidence from genome-wide data of a khazar origin for the ashkenazi jews

Doron M. Behar, Mait Metspalu, Yael Baran, Naama M. Kopelman, Bayazit Yunusbayev, Ariella Gladstein, Shay Tzur, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Kristiina Tambets, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Alena Kushniarevich, Oleg Balanovsky, Elena Balanovsky, Lejla Kovacevic, Damir Marjanovic, Evelin Mihailov, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Costas TriantaphyllidisRoy J. King, Ornella Semino, Antonio Torroni, Michael F Hammer, Ene Metspalu, Karl Skorecki, Saharon Rosset, Eran Halperin, Richard Villems, Noah A. Rosenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of the Caucasus region ~1,000 years ago. Because the Khazar population has left no obvious modern descendants that could enable a clear test for a contribution to Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, the Khazar hypothesis has been difficult to examine using genetics. Furthermore, because only limited genetic data have been available from the Caucasus region, and because these data have been concentrated in populations that are genetically close to populations from the Middle East, the attribution of any signal of Ashkenazi-Caucasus genetic similarity to Khazar ancestry rather than shared ancestral Middle Eastern ancestry has been problematic. Here, through integration of genotypes from newly collected samples with data from several of our past studies, we have assembled the largest data set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins. This data set contains genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,774 samples from 106 Jewish and non-Jewish populations that span the possible regions of potential Ashkenazi ancestry: Europe, the Middle East, and the region historically associated with the Khazar Khaganate. The data set includes 261 samples from 15 populations from the Caucasus region and the region directly to its north, samples that have not previously been included alongside Ashkenazi Jewish samples in genomic studies. Employing a variety of standard techniques for the analysis of population-genetic structure, we found that Ashkenazi Jews share the greatest genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations and, among non-Jewish populations, with groups from Europe and the Middle East. No particular similarity of Ashkenazi Jews to populations from the Caucasus is evident, particularly populations that most closely represent the Khazar region. Thus, analysis of Ashkenazi Jews together with a large sample from the region of the Khazar Khaganate corroborates the earlier results that Ashkenazi Jews derive their ancestry primarily from populations of the Middle East and Europe, that they possess considerable shared ancestry with other Jewish populations, and that there is no indication of a significant genetic contribution either from within or from north of the Caucasus region.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)859-900
Number of pages42
JournalHuman Biology
Volume85
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Jews
ancestry
genome
Genome
Population
Middle East
sampling
genetic analysis
genetic structure
population genetics
genomics
polymorphism
genotype
Genetic Structures
Population Genetics
Population Groups

Keywords

  • Ancestry
  • Jewish genetics
  • Population structure
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

Behar, D. M., Metspalu, M., Baran, Y., Kopelman, N. M., Yunusbayev, B., Gladstein, A., ... Rosenberg, N. A. (2013). No evidence from genome-wide data of a khazar origin for the ashkenazi jews. Human Biology, 85(6), 859-900. https://doi.org/10.3378/027.085.0604 

No evidence from genome-wide data of a khazar origin for the ashkenazi jews. / Behar, Doron M.; Metspalu, Mait; Baran, Yael; Kopelman, Naama M.; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Gladstein, Ariella; Tzur, Shay; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Tambets, Kristiina; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.; Kushniarevich, Alena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovsky, Elena; Kovacevic, Lejla; Marjanovic, Damir; Mihailov, Evelin; Kouvatsi, Anastasia; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; King, Roy J.; Semino, Ornella; Torroni, Antonio; Hammer, Michael F; Metspalu, Ene; Skorecki, Karl; Rosset, Saharon; Halperin, Eran; Villems, Richard; Rosenberg, Noah A.

In: Human Biology, Vol. 85, No. 6, 2013, p. 859-900.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Behar, DM, Metspalu, M, Baran, Y, Kopelman, NM, Yunusbayev, B, Gladstein, A, Tzur, S, Sahakyan, H, Bahmanimehr, A, Yepiskoposyan, L, Tambets, K, Khusnutdinova, EK, Kushniarevich, A, Balanovsky, O, Balanovsky, E, Kovacevic, L, Marjanovic, D, Mihailov, E, Kouvatsi, A, Triantaphyllidis, C, King, RJ, Semino, O, Torroni, A, Hammer, MF, Metspalu, E, Skorecki, K, Rosset, S, Halperin, E, Villems, R & Rosenberg, NA 2013, 'No evidence from genome-wide data of a khazar origin for the ashkenazi jews', Human Biology, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 859-900. https://doi.org/10.3378/027.085.0604 
Behar DM, Metspalu M, Baran Y, Kopelman NM, Yunusbayev B, Gladstein A et al. No evidence from genome-wide data of a khazar origin for the ashkenazi jews. Human Biology. 2013;85(6):859-900. https://doi.org/10.3378/027.085.0604 
Behar, Doron M. ; Metspalu, Mait ; Baran, Yael ; Kopelman, Naama M. ; Yunusbayev, Bayazit ; Gladstein, Ariella ; Tzur, Shay ; Sahakyan, Hovhannes ; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir ; Yepiskoposyan, Levon ; Tambets, Kristiina ; Khusnutdinova, Elza K. ; Kushniarevich, Alena ; Balanovsky, Oleg ; Balanovsky, Elena ; Kovacevic, Lejla ; Marjanovic, Damir ; Mihailov, Evelin ; Kouvatsi, Anastasia ; Triantaphyllidis, Costas ; King, Roy J. ; Semino, Ornella ; Torroni, Antonio ; Hammer, Michael F ; Metspalu, Ene ; Skorecki, Karl ; Rosset, Saharon ; Halperin, Eran ; Villems, Richard ; Rosenberg, Noah A. / No evidence from genome-wide data of a khazar origin for the ashkenazi jews. In: Human Biology. 2013 ; Vol. 85, No. 6. pp. 859-900.
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T1 - No evidence from genome-wide data of a khazar origin for the ashkenazi jews

AU - Behar, Doron M.

AU - Metspalu, Mait

AU - Baran, Yael

AU - Kopelman, Naama M.

AU - Yunusbayev, Bayazit

AU - Gladstein, Ariella

AU - Tzur, Shay

AU - Sahakyan, Hovhannes

AU - Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir

AU - Yepiskoposyan, Levon

AU - Tambets, Kristiina

AU - Khusnutdinova, Elza K.

AU - Kushniarevich, Alena

AU - Balanovsky, Oleg

AU - Balanovsky, Elena

AU - Kovacevic, Lejla

AU - Marjanovic, Damir

AU - Mihailov, Evelin

AU - Kouvatsi, Anastasia

AU - Triantaphyllidis, Costas

AU - King, Roy J.

AU - Semino, Ornella

AU - Torroni, Antonio

AU - Hammer, Michael F

AU - Metspalu, Ene

AU - Skorecki, Karl

AU - Rosset, Saharon

AU - Halperin, Eran

AU - Villems, Richard

AU - Rosenberg, Noah A.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of the Caucasus region ~1,000 years ago. Because the Khazar population has left no obvious modern descendants that could enable a clear test for a contribution to Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, the Khazar hypothesis has been difficult to examine using genetics. Furthermore, because only limited genetic data have been available from the Caucasus region, and because these data have been concentrated in populations that are genetically close to populations from the Middle East, the attribution of any signal of Ashkenazi-Caucasus genetic similarity to Khazar ancestry rather than shared ancestral Middle Eastern ancestry has been problematic. Here, through integration of genotypes from newly collected samples with data from several of our past studies, we have assembled the largest data set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins. This data set contains genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,774 samples from 106 Jewish and non-Jewish populations that span the possible regions of potential Ashkenazi ancestry: Europe, the Middle East, and the region historically associated with the Khazar Khaganate. The data set includes 261 samples from 15 populations from the Caucasus region and the region directly to its north, samples that have not previously been included alongside Ashkenazi Jewish samples in genomic studies. Employing a variety of standard techniques for the analysis of population-genetic structure, we found that Ashkenazi Jews share the greatest genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations and, among non-Jewish populations, with groups from Europe and the Middle East. No particular similarity of Ashkenazi Jews to populations from the Caucasus is evident, particularly populations that most closely represent the Khazar region. Thus, analysis of Ashkenazi Jews together with a large sample from the region of the Khazar Khaganate corroborates the earlier results that Ashkenazi Jews derive their ancestry primarily from populations of the Middle East and Europe, that they possess considerable shared ancestry with other Jewish populations, and that there is no indication of a significant genetic contribution either from within or from north of the Caucasus region.

AB - The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of the Caucasus region ~1,000 years ago. Because the Khazar population has left no obvious modern descendants that could enable a clear test for a contribution to Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, the Khazar hypothesis has been difficult to examine using genetics. Furthermore, because only limited genetic data have been available from the Caucasus region, and because these data have been concentrated in populations that are genetically close to populations from the Middle East, the attribution of any signal of Ashkenazi-Caucasus genetic similarity to Khazar ancestry rather than shared ancestral Middle Eastern ancestry has been problematic. Here, through integration of genotypes from newly collected samples with data from several of our past studies, we have assembled the largest data set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins. This data set contains genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,774 samples from 106 Jewish and non-Jewish populations that span the possible regions of potential Ashkenazi ancestry: Europe, the Middle East, and the region historically associated with the Khazar Khaganate. The data set includes 261 samples from 15 populations from the Caucasus region and the region directly to its north, samples that have not previously been included alongside Ashkenazi Jewish samples in genomic studies. Employing a variety of standard techniques for the analysis of population-genetic structure, we found that Ashkenazi Jews share the greatest genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations and, among non-Jewish populations, with groups from Europe and the Middle East. No particular similarity of Ashkenazi Jews to populations from the Caucasus is evident, particularly populations that most closely represent the Khazar region. Thus, analysis of Ashkenazi Jews together with a large sample from the region of the Khazar Khaganate corroborates the earlier results that Ashkenazi Jews derive their ancestry primarily from populations of the Middle East and Europe, that they possess considerable shared ancestry with other Jewish populations, and that there is no indication of a significant genetic contribution either from within or from north of the Caucasus region.

KW - Ancestry

KW - Jewish genetics

KW - Population structure

KW - Single-nucleotide polymorphisms

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