Non-neurologic organ dysfunction plays a major role in predicting outcomes in pediatric traumatic brain injury

Kamil Hanna, Mohammad Hamidi, Phillip Vartanyan, Marion Henry, Lourdes Castanon, Andrew Tang, Muhammad Zeeshan, Narong Kulvatunyou, Bellal Joseph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Nonneurological organ dysfunction (NNOD) occurs after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with mortality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of NNOD and its association with outcomes in pediatric patients with TBI. We hypothesized that NNOD is associated with worse outcomes in pediatric patients with severe TBI. Methods: We performed a 4-year (2013–16) analysis of our prospectively maintained TBI database. All patients (age < 18) with an isolated-severe TBI (head-abbreviated injury scale: AIS ≥ 3 & extracranial-AIS < 3) were included. NNOD was measured using the pediatric multiple organ dysfunction (P-MOD) score. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), and adverse discharge disposition: rehabilitation or skilled nursing facility (SNF). Regression analysis was performed. Results: We analyzed 292 patients. Mean age was 11 ± 6 years, 57% were male and the mortality rate was 18.1%. The incidence of NNOD was 35%. The most common dysfunctional organ system was the respiratory (25%) followed by the cardiovascular (12%). On regression analysis, the presence of at least one NNOD was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 2.1 [1.7–2.9]; p < 0.01), low GOS-E (OR 1.8 [1.5–2.3]; p < 0.01), and SNF disposition (OR 1.7 [1.2–2.1]; p < 0.01). Conclusion: NNOD develops in one of every three severe TBI pediatric patients and is independently associated with adverse outcomes. Identification of NNOD in pediatric TBI and focusing on management of NNOD could improve outcomes. Level of evidence: III Prognostic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020



  • Multiorgan failure
  • Nonneurological organ dysfunction
  • Pediatric
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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