Noncontact force microscopy in liquids

R. Giles, J. P. Cleveland, Srinivas Manne, P. K. Hansma, B. Drake, P. Maivald, C. Boles, J. Gurley, V. Elings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Scopus citations


Force microscopy in liquids offers many advantages including the mitigation of capillary forces and the simulation of real environments for biological and technological processes. Noncontact force microscopy in liquids adds the advantage of probing electrical and magnetic fields above surfaces. Here we demonstrate magnetic force imaging of recorded bits on a computer hard disk in air and in liquid. A method of noncontact force microscopy (patent pending, Digital Instruments) is used in which the tip is first scanned in contact to image topography and then rescanned above the surface to image long-range forces.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-618
Number of pages2
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Giles, R., Cleveland, J. P., Manne, S., Hansma, P. K., Drake, B., Maivald, P., ... Elings, V. (1993). Noncontact force microscopy in liquids. Applied Physics Letters, 63(5), 617-618.