Numerical models of collisions between core-collapse supernovae and circumstellar shells

Allard Jan van Marle, Nathan Smith, Stanley P. Owocki, Bob van Veelen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent observations of luminous Type IIn supernovae (SNe) provide compelling evidence that massive circumstellar shells surround their progenitors. In this paper we investigate how the properties of such shells influence the SN light curve by conducting numerical simulations of the interaction between an expanding SN and a circumstellar shell ejected a few years prior to core collapse. Our parameter study explores how the emergent luminosity depends on a range of circumstellar shell masses, velocities, geometries and wind mass-loss rates, as well as variations in the SN mass and energy. We find that the shell mass is the most important parameter, in the sense that higher shell masses (or higher ratios of Mshell/MSN) lead to higher peak luminosities and higher efficiencies in converting shock energy into visual light. Lower mass shells can also cause high peak luminosities if the shell is slow or if the SN ejecta are very fast, but only for a short time. Sustaining a high luminosity for durations of more than 100 d requires massive circumstellar shells of the order of 10 MȮ or more. This reaffirms previous comparisons between pre-SN shells and shells produced by giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBVs), although the physical mechanism responsible for these outbursts remains uncertain. The light-curve shape and observed shell velocity can help diagnose the approximate size and density of the circumstellar shell, and it may be possible to distinguish between spherical and bipolar shells with multi-wavelength light curves. These models are merely illustrative. One can, of course, achieve even higher luminosities and longer duration light curves from interaction by increasing the explosion energy and shell mass beyond values adopted here.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2305-2327
Number of pages23
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume407
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

supernovae
collision
shell
collisions
luminosity
light curve
sustaining
spherical shells
ejecta
volcanic eruptions
explosions
energy
shock
interactions
conduction
causes
geometry
wavelengths
outburst
explosion

Keywords

  • Hydrodynamics
  • ISM: supernova remnants
  • Methods: numerical
  • Outflows
  • Stars: Mass-loss
  • Stars: winds
  • Supernovae: General

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Numerical models of collisions between core-collapse supernovae and circumstellar shells. / van Marle, Allard Jan; Smith, Nathan; Owocki, Stanley P.; van Veelen, Bob.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 407, No. 4, 10.2010, p. 2305-2327.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

van Marle, Allard Jan ; Smith, Nathan ; Owocki, Stanley P. ; van Veelen, Bob. / Numerical models of collisions between core-collapse supernovae and circumstellar shells. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2010 ; Vol. 407, No. 4. pp. 2305-2327.
@article{0e4eeba4bfe5443abf84083c14a1945b,
title = "Numerical models of collisions between core-collapse supernovae and circumstellar shells",
abstract = "Recent observations of luminous Type IIn supernovae (SNe) provide compelling evidence that massive circumstellar shells surround their progenitors. In this paper we investigate how the properties of such shells influence the SN light curve by conducting numerical simulations of the interaction between an expanding SN and a circumstellar shell ejected a few years prior to core collapse. Our parameter study explores how the emergent luminosity depends on a range of circumstellar shell masses, velocities, geometries and wind mass-loss rates, as well as variations in the SN mass and energy. We find that the shell mass is the most important parameter, in the sense that higher shell masses (or higher ratios of Mshell/MSN) lead to higher peak luminosities and higher efficiencies in converting shock energy into visual light. Lower mass shells can also cause high peak luminosities if the shell is slow or if the SN ejecta are very fast, but only for a short time. Sustaining a high luminosity for durations of more than 100 d requires massive circumstellar shells of the order of 10 MȮ or more. This reaffirms previous comparisons between pre-SN shells and shells produced by giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBVs), although the physical mechanism responsible for these outbursts remains uncertain. The light-curve shape and observed shell velocity can help diagnose the approximate size and density of the circumstellar shell, and it may be possible to distinguish between spherical and bipolar shells with multi-wavelength light curves. These models are merely illustrative. One can, of course, achieve even higher luminosities and longer duration light curves from interaction by increasing the explosion energy and shell mass beyond values adopted here.",
keywords = "Hydrodynamics, ISM: supernova remnants, Methods: numerical, Outflows, Stars: Mass-loss, Stars: winds, Supernovae: General",
author = "{van Marle}, {Allard Jan} and Nathan Smith and Owocki, {Stanley P.} and {van Veelen}, Bob",
year = "2010",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16851.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "407",
pages = "2305--2327",
journal = "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society",
issn = "0035-8711",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Numerical models of collisions between core-collapse supernovae and circumstellar shells

AU - van Marle, Allard Jan

AU - Smith, Nathan

AU - Owocki, Stanley P.

AU - van Veelen, Bob

PY - 2010/10

Y1 - 2010/10

N2 - Recent observations of luminous Type IIn supernovae (SNe) provide compelling evidence that massive circumstellar shells surround their progenitors. In this paper we investigate how the properties of such shells influence the SN light curve by conducting numerical simulations of the interaction between an expanding SN and a circumstellar shell ejected a few years prior to core collapse. Our parameter study explores how the emergent luminosity depends on a range of circumstellar shell masses, velocities, geometries and wind mass-loss rates, as well as variations in the SN mass and energy. We find that the shell mass is the most important parameter, in the sense that higher shell masses (or higher ratios of Mshell/MSN) lead to higher peak luminosities and higher efficiencies in converting shock energy into visual light. Lower mass shells can also cause high peak luminosities if the shell is slow or if the SN ejecta are very fast, but only for a short time. Sustaining a high luminosity for durations of more than 100 d requires massive circumstellar shells of the order of 10 MȮ or more. This reaffirms previous comparisons between pre-SN shells and shells produced by giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBVs), although the physical mechanism responsible for these outbursts remains uncertain. The light-curve shape and observed shell velocity can help diagnose the approximate size and density of the circumstellar shell, and it may be possible to distinguish between spherical and bipolar shells with multi-wavelength light curves. These models are merely illustrative. One can, of course, achieve even higher luminosities and longer duration light curves from interaction by increasing the explosion energy and shell mass beyond values adopted here.

AB - Recent observations of luminous Type IIn supernovae (SNe) provide compelling evidence that massive circumstellar shells surround their progenitors. In this paper we investigate how the properties of such shells influence the SN light curve by conducting numerical simulations of the interaction between an expanding SN and a circumstellar shell ejected a few years prior to core collapse. Our parameter study explores how the emergent luminosity depends on a range of circumstellar shell masses, velocities, geometries and wind mass-loss rates, as well as variations in the SN mass and energy. We find that the shell mass is the most important parameter, in the sense that higher shell masses (or higher ratios of Mshell/MSN) lead to higher peak luminosities and higher efficiencies in converting shock energy into visual light. Lower mass shells can also cause high peak luminosities if the shell is slow or if the SN ejecta are very fast, but only for a short time. Sustaining a high luminosity for durations of more than 100 d requires massive circumstellar shells of the order of 10 MȮ or more. This reaffirms previous comparisons between pre-SN shells and shells produced by giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBVs), although the physical mechanism responsible for these outbursts remains uncertain. The light-curve shape and observed shell velocity can help diagnose the approximate size and density of the circumstellar shell, and it may be possible to distinguish between spherical and bipolar shells with multi-wavelength light curves. These models are merely illustrative. One can, of course, achieve even higher luminosities and longer duration light curves from interaction by increasing the explosion energy and shell mass beyond values adopted here.

KW - Hydrodynamics

KW - ISM: supernova remnants

KW - Methods: numerical

KW - Outflows

KW - Stars: Mass-loss

KW - Stars: winds

KW - Supernovae: General

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79953729859&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79953729859&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16851.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16851.x

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:79953729859

VL - 407

SP - 2305

EP - 2327

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

IS - 4

ER -