Nutritional targeting of cyclooxygenase-2 for colon cancer prevention

Donato Romagnolo, Andreas J. Papoutsis, Ornella Selmin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Factors related to diet and life style have been identified as primary determinants in about 80% of colorectal cancers. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (COXIB) reduce the relative risk of colon cancer. To overcome systemic COX inhibition associated with NSAID and COXIB, there is a growing interest in developing alternative colon cancer prevention strategies using diet-based approaches that target COX-2. The transition from aberrant crypt foci (ACF) to colon cancer is a multiyear process providing opportunities for nutritional targeting of genes influencing the course of this disease process at early stages of development. The activation of the proinflammatory gene COX-2 and PG production in the colonic mucosa are recognized risk factors in colon cancer. Many natural food components may impact colon cancer risk by interfering with ligand-activated receptors, signal transduction pathways, and transcription factors involved in stimulation of COX-2 expression. In this review, we highlight key upstream features of signaling pathways and transcriptional control of the COX-2 gene and discuss opportunities for dietary modulation of COX-2 expression in gastro-intestinal cancers with special emphasis on prevention of colorectal tumors. Review of the experimental evidence suggests that dietary strategies based on specific or cocktails of bioactive food components as well nutritional-pharmacological combinations targeted to regulation of COX-2 expression and activity may prove useful in the prevention of colon cancer. An integrated approach may offer the advantage of combined higher efficacies. Future studies should investigate the efficacy of combinations of bioactive food compounds on epigenetic regulation of the COX-2 gene and characterize potential synergies and amplification effects resulting from the concomitant use of bioactive food components and COX-2 inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-191
Number of pages11
JournalInflammation and Allergy - Drug Targets
Volume9
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2010

Fingerprint

Cyclooxygenase 2
Colonic Neoplasms
Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
Food
Colorectal Neoplasms
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Aberrant Crypt Foci
Diet
Intestinal Neoplasms
Gene Targeting
Epigenomics
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Transcriptional Activation
Genes
Life Style
Signal Transduction
Mucous Membrane
Transcription Factors
Pharmacology
Ligands

Keywords

  • Bioactive food components
  • Colon cancer
  • Cyclooxygenase-2
  • Inflammation
  • Prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Nutritional targeting of cyclooxygenase-2 for colon cancer prevention. / Romagnolo, Donato; Papoutsis, Andreas J.; Selmin, Ornella.

In: Inflammation and Allergy - Drug Targets, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2010, p. 181-191.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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