Observational diagnostics of elongated planet-induced vortices with realistic planet formation time-scales

Michael Hammer, Paola Pinilla, Kaitlin Kratter, Min Kai Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Gap-opening planets can generate dust-trapping vortices that may explain some of the latest discoveries of high-contrast crescent-shaped dust asymmetries in transition discs. While planet-induced vortices were previously thought to have concentrated shapes, recent computational work has shown that these features naturally become much more elongated in the gas when simulations account for the relatively long time-scale over which planets accrete their mass. In this work, we conduct two-fluid hydrodynamical simulations of vortices induced by slowly growing Jupiter-mass planets in discs with very low viscosity (α = 3 × 10-5). We simulate the dust dynamics for four particle sizes spanning 0.3 mm to 1 cm in order to produce synthetic ALMA images. In our simulations, we find that an elongated vortex still traps dust, but not directly at its centre. With a flatter pressure bump and disruptions from the planet's overlapping spiral density waves, the dust instead circulates around the vortex. This motion (1) typically carries the peak off-centre, (2) spreads the dust out over a wider azimuthal extent ≥180?, (3) skews the azimuthal profile towards the front of the vortex, and (4) can also create double peaks in newly formed vortices. In particular, we expect that the most defining observational signature, a peak offset of more than 30?, should be detectable > 30 per cent of the time in observations with a beam diameter of at most the planet's separation from its star.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3609-3621
Number of pages13
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume482
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

vortex
planets
planet
vortices
timescale
dust
simulation
Jupiter (planet)
Jupiter
trapping
asymmetry
viscosity
particle size
signatures
traps
stars
fluid
fluids
profiles
gases

Keywords

  • Hydrodynamics
  • Methods: numerical
  • Protoplanetary discs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Observational diagnostics of elongated planet-induced vortices with realistic planet formation time-scales. / Hammer, Michael; Pinilla, Paola; Kratter, Kaitlin; Lin, Min Kai.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 482, No. 3, 01.01.2019, p. 3609-3621.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{661b7ce5ea084947b906c6697644be8e,
title = "Observational diagnostics of elongated planet-induced vortices with realistic planet formation time-scales",
abstract = "Gap-opening planets can generate dust-trapping vortices that may explain some of the latest discoveries of high-contrast crescent-shaped dust asymmetries in transition discs. While planet-induced vortices were previously thought to have concentrated shapes, recent computational work has shown that these features naturally become much more elongated in the gas when simulations account for the relatively long time-scale over which planets accrete their mass. In this work, we conduct two-fluid hydrodynamical simulations of vortices induced by slowly growing Jupiter-mass planets in discs with very low viscosity (α = 3 × 10-5). We simulate the dust dynamics for four particle sizes spanning 0.3 mm to 1 cm in order to produce synthetic ALMA images. In our simulations, we find that an elongated vortex still traps dust, but not directly at its centre. With a flatter pressure bump and disruptions from the planet's overlapping spiral density waves, the dust instead circulates around the vortex. This motion (1) typically carries the peak off-centre, (2) spreads the dust out over a wider azimuthal extent ≥180?, (3) skews the azimuthal profile towards the front of the vortex, and (4) can also create double peaks in newly formed vortices. In particular, we expect that the most defining observational signature, a peak offset of more than 30?, should be detectable > 30 per cent of the time in observations with a beam diameter of at most the planet's separation from its star.",
keywords = "Hydrodynamics, Methods: numerical, Protoplanetary discs",
author = "Michael Hammer and Paola Pinilla and Kaitlin Kratter and Lin, {Min Kai}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/mnras/sty2946",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "482",
pages = "3609--3621",
journal = "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society",
issn = "0035-8711",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Observational diagnostics of elongated planet-induced vortices with realistic planet formation time-scales

AU - Hammer, Michael

AU - Pinilla, Paola

AU - Kratter, Kaitlin

AU - Lin, Min Kai

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Gap-opening planets can generate dust-trapping vortices that may explain some of the latest discoveries of high-contrast crescent-shaped dust asymmetries in transition discs. While planet-induced vortices were previously thought to have concentrated shapes, recent computational work has shown that these features naturally become much more elongated in the gas when simulations account for the relatively long time-scale over which planets accrete their mass. In this work, we conduct two-fluid hydrodynamical simulations of vortices induced by slowly growing Jupiter-mass planets in discs with very low viscosity (α = 3 × 10-5). We simulate the dust dynamics for four particle sizes spanning 0.3 mm to 1 cm in order to produce synthetic ALMA images. In our simulations, we find that an elongated vortex still traps dust, but not directly at its centre. With a flatter pressure bump and disruptions from the planet's overlapping spiral density waves, the dust instead circulates around the vortex. This motion (1) typically carries the peak off-centre, (2) spreads the dust out over a wider azimuthal extent ≥180?, (3) skews the azimuthal profile towards the front of the vortex, and (4) can also create double peaks in newly formed vortices. In particular, we expect that the most defining observational signature, a peak offset of more than 30?, should be detectable > 30 per cent of the time in observations with a beam diameter of at most the planet's separation from its star.

AB - Gap-opening planets can generate dust-trapping vortices that may explain some of the latest discoveries of high-contrast crescent-shaped dust asymmetries in transition discs. While planet-induced vortices were previously thought to have concentrated shapes, recent computational work has shown that these features naturally become much more elongated in the gas when simulations account for the relatively long time-scale over which planets accrete their mass. In this work, we conduct two-fluid hydrodynamical simulations of vortices induced by slowly growing Jupiter-mass planets in discs with very low viscosity (α = 3 × 10-5). We simulate the dust dynamics for four particle sizes spanning 0.3 mm to 1 cm in order to produce synthetic ALMA images. In our simulations, we find that an elongated vortex still traps dust, but not directly at its centre. With a flatter pressure bump and disruptions from the planet's overlapping spiral density waves, the dust instead circulates around the vortex. This motion (1) typically carries the peak off-centre, (2) spreads the dust out over a wider azimuthal extent ≥180?, (3) skews the azimuthal profile towards the front of the vortex, and (4) can also create double peaks in newly formed vortices. In particular, we expect that the most defining observational signature, a peak offset of more than 30?, should be detectable > 30 per cent of the time in observations with a beam diameter of at most the planet's separation from its star.

KW - Hydrodynamics

KW - Methods: numerical

KW - Protoplanetary discs

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066949285&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85066949285&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/mnras/sty2946

DO - 10.1093/mnras/sty2946

M3 - Article

VL - 482

SP - 3609

EP - 3621

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

IS - 3

ER -