Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

Gabriela Rosiles-González, Gerardo Ávila-Torres, Oscar A. Moreno-Valenzuela, Gilberto Acosta-González, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Cinthya D. Grimaldo-Hernández, Judith K. Brown, Cristóbal Chaidez-Quiroz, Walter Q. Betancourt, Charles P. Gerba, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Abstract

The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels <40 MPN/100 ml. The highest average concentrations of somatic and male F+ specific coliphages were 920 and 330 plaque forming units per 100 ml, respectively, detected in freshwater during the rainy season. PMMoV RNA was detected in 85% of the samples with gene sequences sharing 99–100% of nucleotide identity with PMMoV sequences available in GenBank. Quantification of PMMoV genome copies (GC) by quantitative real-time PCR indicated concentrations ranging from 1.7 × 101 to 1.0 × 104 GC/L, with the highest number of GC detected during the rainy season. No significant correlation was observed between PMMoV occurrence by season or water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages1-11
Number of pages11
JournalFood and Environmental Virology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jun 23 2017

Fingerprint

Pepper mild mottle virus
karsts
aquifers
groundwater
Mexico
Groundwater
Viruses
Fresh Water
Genome
Bacteria
wet season
genome
Coliphages
RNA Viruses
coliphages
indicator species
sampling
Nucleic Acid Databases
Feces
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Keywords

  • Fecal indicator
  • Groundwater
  • Karst
  • Pepper mild mottle virus
  • Yucatan Peninsula

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Food Science
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Virology

Cite this

Rosiles-González, G., Ávila-Torres, G., Moreno-Valenzuela, O. A., Acosta-González, G., Leal-Bautista, R. M., Grimaldo-Hernández, C. D., ... Hernández-Zepeda, C. (2017). Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Food and Environmental Virology, 1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s12560-017-9309-1

Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. / Rosiles-González, Gabriela; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A.; Acosta-González, Gilberto; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D.; Brown, Judith K.; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Betancourt, Walter Q.; Gerba, Charles P.; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia.

In: Food and Environmental Virology, 23.06.2017, p. 1-11.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Rosiles-González, G, Ávila-Torres, G, Moreno-Valenzuela, OA, Acosta-González, G, Leal-Bautista, RM, Grimaldo-Hernández, CD, Brown, JK, Chaidez-Quiroz, C, Betancourt, WQ, Gerba, CP & Hernández-Zepeda, C 2017, 'Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico' Food and Environmental Virology, pp. 1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s12560-017-9309-1
Rosiles-González G, Ávila-Torres G, Moreno-Valenzuela OA, Acosta-González G, Leal-Bautista RM, Grimaldo-Hernández CD et al. Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Food and Environmental Virology. 2017 Jun 23;1-11. Available from, DOI: 10.1007/s12560-017-9309-1
Rosiles-González, Gabriela ; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo ; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A. ; Acosta-González, Gilberto ; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María ; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D. ; Brown, Judith K. ; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal ; Betancourt, Walter Q. ; Gerba, Charles P. ; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia. / Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. In: Food and Environmental Virology. 2017 ; pp. 1-11
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