Ocular determinants of refractive error and its age- and sex-related variations in the Chinese American eye study

for the Chinese American Eye Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE: To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Chinese American Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016. This study included data from 4582 participants who underwent an eye examination to obtain axial length (AL), central corneal thickness, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), corneal power (CP), noncycloplegic subjective refraction, and lens nuclear opalescence (NOP) grading. Data from the right phakic eye of each participant were used. Multiple regression models (standardized regression coefficients [SRCs] and semipartial correlation coefficients squared [SPCCs2]) identified key determinants of RE. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ocular determinants of RE. RESULTS: Among the 4071 participants eligible for analysis (1496 men [36.7%] and 2575 women [63.3%]; mean [SD] age, 60.5 [8.1] years), mean (SD) RE was -0.52 (2.95) diopters (D), with no sex-related difference. A hyperopic shift occurred in women from -0.62 (2.95) D at 50 to 59 years to 0.60 (1.62) D at 80 years or older and in men from -0.69 (3.00) D at 50 to 59 years to 0.40 (2.29) D at 80 years or older (P < .001 for both). Compared with men, women had shorter AL (mean [SD], 23.62 [1.34] vs 24.14 [1.27] mm; P = .006), shorter ACD (mean [SD], 3.33 [0.34] vs 3.44 [0.34] mm; P < .001), and steeper CP (mean [SD], 43.50 [1.52] vs 42.88 [1.45] D; P = .02), after adjusting for age and height. No sex differences were found in VCD, LT, and NOP after height adjustment. Compared with younger individuals, older individuals had shallower ACD, thicker LT, and more NOP compared with younger individuals (P < .001 for both), even after adjustment for height. Axial length was the strongest determinant of RE (SRC = -0.92; SPCC2 = 0.55), followed by CP (SRC = -0.43; SPCC2 = 0.15). When individual components of AL were evaluated, VCD had the greatest contributing effect (SRC = -0.99; SPCC2 = 0.52), followed by CP (SRC = -0.47; SPCC2 = 0.15) and LT (SRC = -0.29; SPCC2 = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data suggest that Chinese American individuals have longer AL and greater contribution of AL to RE than do Latino and other Chinese populations. Future studies should explore risk factors for increased AL in Chinese Americans and potential interventions that may ultimately preventmyopia-related disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)724-732
Number of pages9
JournalJAMA Ophthalmology
Volume135
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

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Refractive Errors
Asian Americans
Lenses
Anterior Chamber
Sex Characteristics
Population
Vision Disorders
Hispanic Americans
Anatomy
Cross-Sectional Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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Ocular determinants of refractive error and its age- and sex-related variations in the Chinese American eye study. / for the Chinese American Eye Study Group.

In: JAMA Ophthalmology, Vol. 135, No. 7, 01.07.2017, p. 724-732.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

for the Chinese American Eye Study Group. / Ocular determinants of refractive error and its age- and sex-related variations in the Chinese American eye study. In: JAMA Ophthalmology. 2017 ; Vol. 135, No. 7. pp. 724-732.
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title = "Ocular determinants of refractive error and its age- and sex-related variations in the Chinese American eye study",
abstract = "IMPORTANCE: Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE: To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Chinese American Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016. This study included data from 4582 participants who underwent an eye examination to obtain axial length (AL), central corneal thickness, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), corneal power (CP), noncycloplegic subjective refraction, and lens nuclear opalescence (NOP) grading. Data from the right phakic eye of each participant were used. Multiple regression models (standardized regression coefficients [SRCs] and semipartial correlation coefficients squared [SPCCs2]) identified key determinants of RE. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ocular determinants of RE. RESULTS: Among the 4071 participants eligible for analysis (1496 men [36.7{\%}] and 2575 women [63.3{\%}]; mean [SD] age, 60.5 [8.1] years), mean (SD) RE was -0.52 (2.95) diopters (D), with no sex-related difference. A hyperopic shift occurred in women from -0.62 (2.95) D at 50 to 59 years to 0.60 (1.62) D at 80 years or older and in men from -0.69 (3.00) D at 50 to 59 years to 0.40 (2.29) D at 80 years or older (P < .001 for both). Compared with men, women had shorter AL (mean [SD], 23.62 [1.34] vs 24.14 [1.27] mm; P = .006), shorter ACD (mean [SD], 3.33 [0.34] vs 3.44 [0.34] mm; P < .001), and steeper CP (mean [SD], 43.50 [1.52] vs 42.88 [1.45] D; P = .02), after adjusting for age and height. No sex differences were found in VCD, LT, and NOP after height adjustment. Compared with younger individuals, older individuals had shallower ACD, thicker LT, and more NOP compared with younger individuals (P < .001 for both), even after adjustment for height. Axial length was the strongest determinant of RE (SRC = -0.92; SPCC2 = 0.55), followed by CP (SRC = -0.43; SPCC2 = 0.15). When individual components of AL were evaluated, VCD had the greatest contributing effect (SRC = -0.99; SPCC2 = 0.52), followed by CP (SRC = -0.47; SPCC2 = 0.15) and LT (SRC = -0.29; SPCC2 = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data suggest that Chinese American individuals have longer AL and greater contribution of AL to RE than do Latino and other Chinese populations. Future studies should explore risk factors for increased AL in Chinese Americans and potential interventions that may ultimately preventmyopia-related disease.",
author = "{for the Chinese American Eye Study Group} and Richter, {Grace M.} and Mingwu Wang and Xuejuan Jiang and Shuang Wu and Dandan Wang and Mina Torres and Farzana Choudhury and Rohit Varma and Roberta McKean-Cowdin and Azen, {Stanley P.} and Chunyi Hsu and David Dinh and Ruzhang Jiang and Jie Sun and Wang, {Yu Ping} and Justine Wong and Rucha Desai and John, {Lisa V.} and Michelle Cheng and Alfred Sommer and Anne Coleman and Dennis Han and Craig Hanis and Louise Wideroff and Terri Young",
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T1 - Ocular determinants of refractive error and its age- and sex-related variations in the Chinese American eye study

AU - for the Chinese American Eye Study Group

AU - Richter, Grace M.

AU - Wang, Mingwu

AU - Jiang, Xuejuan

AU - Wu, Shuang

AU - Wang, Dandan

AU - Torres, Mina

AU - Choudhury, Farzana

AU - Varma, Rohit

AU - McKean-Cowdin, Roberta

AU - Azen, Stanley P.

AU - Hsu, Chunyi

AU - Dinh, David

AU - Jiang, Ruzhang

AU - Sun, Jie

AU - Wang, Yu Ping

AU - Wong, Justine

AU - Desai, Rucha

AU - John, Lisa V.

AU - Cheng, Michelle

AU - Sommer, Alfred

AU - Coleman, Anne

AU - Han, Dennis

AU - Hanis, Craig

AU - Wideroff, Louise

AU - Young, Terri

PY - 2017/7/1

Y1 - 2017/7/1

N2 - IMPORTANCE: Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE: To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Chinese American Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016. This study included data from 4582 participants who underwent an eye examination to obtain axial length (AL), central corneal thickness, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), corneal power (CP), noncycloplegic subjective refraction, and lens nuclear opalescence (NOP) grading. Data from the right phakic eye of each participant were used. Multiple regression models (standardized regression coefficients [SRCs] and semipartial correlation coefficients squared [SPCCs2]) identified key determinants of RE. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ocular determinants of RE. RESULTS: Among the 4071 participants eligible for analysis (1496 men [36.7%] and 2575 women [63.3%]; mean [SD] age, 60.5 [8.1] years), mean (SD) RE was -0.52 (2.95) diopters (D), with no sex-related difference. A hyperopic shift occurred in women from -0.62 (2.95) D at 50 to 59 years to 0.60 (1.62) D at 80 years or older and in men from -0.69 (3.00) D at 50 to 59 years to 0.40 (2.29) D at 80 years or older (P < .001 for both). Compared with men, women had shorter AL (mean [SD], 23.62 [1.34] vs 24.14 [1.27] mm; P = .006), shorter ACD (mean [SD], 3.33 [0.34] vs 3.44 [0.34] mm; P < .001), and steeper CP (mean [SD], 43.50 [1.52] vs 42.88 [1.45] D; P = .02), after adjusting for age and height. No sex differences were found in VCD, LT, and NOP after height adjustment. Compared with younger individuals, older individuals had shallower ACD, thicker LT, and more NOP compared with younger individuals (P < .001 for both), even after adjustment for height. Axial length was the strongest determinant of RE (SRC = -0.92; SPCC2 = 0.55), followed by CP (SRC = -0.43; SPCC2 = 0.15). When individual components of AL were evaluated, VCD had the greatest contributing effect (SRC = -0.99; SPCC2 = 0.52), followed by CP (SRC = -0.47; SPCC2 = 0.15) and LT (SRC = -0.29; SPCC2 = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data suggest that Chinese American individuals have longer AL and greater contribution of AL to RE than do Latino and other Chinese populations. Future studies should explore risk factors for increased AL in Chinese Americans and potential interventions that may ultimately preventmyopia-related disease.

AB - IMPORTANCE: Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE: To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Chinese American Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016. This study included data from 4582 participants who underwent an eye examination to obtain axial length (AL), central corneal thickness, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), corneal power (CP), noncycloplegic subjective refraction, and lens nuclear opalescence (NOP) grading. Data from the right phakic eye of each participant were used. Multiple regression models (standardized regression coefficients [SRCs] and semipartial correlation coefficients squared [SPCCs2]) identified key determinants of RE. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ocular determinants of RE. RESULTS: Among the 4071 participants eligible for analysis (1496 men [36.7%] and 2575 women [63.3%]; mean [SD] age, 60.5 [8.1] years), mean (SD) RE was -0.52 (2.95) diopters (D), with no sex-related difference. A hyperopic shift occurred in women from -0.62 (2.95) D at 50 to 59 years to 0.60 (1.62) D at 80 years or older and in men from -0.69 (3.00) D at 50 to 59 years to 0.40 (2.29) D at 80 years or older (P < .001 for both). Compared with men, women had shorter AL (mean [SD], 23.62 [1.34] vs 24.14 [1.27] mm; P = .006), shorter ACD (mean [SD], 3.33 [0.34] vs 3.44 [0.34] mm; P < .001), and steeper CP (mean [SD], 43.50 [1.52] vs 42.88 [1.45] D; P = .02), after adjusting for age and height. No sex differences were found in VCD, LT, and NOP after height adjustment. Compared with younger individuals, older individuals had shallower ACD, thicker LT, and more NOP compared with younger individuals (P < .001 for both), even after adjustment for height. Axial length was the strongest determinant of RE (SRC = -0.92; SPCC2 = 0.55), followed by CP (SRC = -0.43; SPCC2 = 0.15). When individual components of AL were evaluated, VCD had the greatest contributing effect (SRC = -0.99; SPCC2 = 0.52), followed by CP (SRC = -0.47; SPCC2 = 0.15) and LT (SRC = -0.29; SPCC2 = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data suggest that Chinese American individuals have longer AL and greater contribution of AL to RE than do Latino and other Chinese populations. Future studies should explore risk factors for increased AL in Chinese Americans and potential interventions that may ultimately preventmyopia-related disease.

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