Oligocene-Miocene Kailas basin, southwestern Tibet: Record of postcollisional upper-plate extension in the Indus-Yarlung suture zone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

130 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Kailas basin developed during late Oligocene-early Miocene time along the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southwestern Tibet. The >2.5-km-thick basin-fi lling Kailas Formation consists of a lower coarse-grained proximal conglomerate and more distal fl uvial sandstone member, a lacustrine shale and sandstone member, and an upper redbed clastic member. Felsic tuffs and trachyandesite layers are locally present. De trital and igneous zircon U-Pb ages indicate depo sition of most of the Kailas Formation between ca. 26 and 24 Ma. The Kailas Formation was deposited by alluvial-fan, low-sinuosity fl uvial, and deep lacustrine depositional systems in buttress unconformity upon andesitic volcanic (ca. 67 Ma) and granitoid (ca. 55 Ma) rocks of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Abundant organic material, fi sh and amphibian fossils, and sparse palynomorphs suggest that Kailas lakes developed in a warm tropical climate, quite different from coeval basins in central Tibet, which formed at high elevation in a dry climate. Provenance and paleocurrent data indicate that the bulk of the Kailas Formation was derived from the northerly Gangdese magmatic arc (Kailas magmatic complex). Only during the latest stages of basin fi lling was abundant sediment derived from the southerly Tethyan Himalayan thrust belt in the hanging wall of the Great Counter thrust. Kailas basin stratigraphy resembles a classic lacustrine sandwich and is most consistent with deposition in an extensional or transtensional rift that developed along the suture zone some 30 m.y. after the onset of Indo-Eurasian intercontinental collision. Correlative coarse-grained syntectonic strata similar to the Kailas Formation crop out along a >1300 km length of theIndus-Yarlung suture zone, suggesting that the basin-forming mechanism recorded by the Kailas Formation was of regional signifi cance and not exclusively related to local kinematics near the southeastern end of the Karakoram fault. We propose that extension of the southern edge of the Eurasian plate was caused by southward rollback of underthrusting Indian continental lithosphere, followed by slab break-off. Alternating episodes of hard and soft collision, asso ciated with regional contraction and extension, respectively, in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogenic system may have been related to changing dynamics of the subducting/underthrusting Indian plate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1337-1362
Number of pages26
JournalBulletin of the Geological Society of America
Volume123
Issue number7-8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2011

Fingerprint

suture zone
Oligocene
Miocene
basin
thrust
collision
sandstone
paleocurrent
Indian plate
continental lithosphere
Eurasian plate
hanging wall
alluvial fan
granitoid
amphibian
unconformity
conglomerate
contraction
provenance
slab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

@article{ca64f7df89b44b4ba37165fbbf36d893,
title = "Oligocene-Miocene Kailas basin, southwestern Tibet: Record of postcollisional upper-plate extension in the Indus-Yarlung suture zone",
abstract = "The Kailas basin developed during late Oligocene-early Miocene time along the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southwestern Tibet. The >2.5-km-thick basin-fi lling Kailas Formation consists of a lower coarse-grained proximal conglomerate and more distal fl uvial sandstone member, a lacustrine shale and sandstone member, and an upper redbed clastic member. Felsic tuffs and trachyandesite layers are locally present. De trital and igneous zircon U-Pb ages indicate depo sition of most of the Kailas Formation between ca. 26 and 24 Ma. The Kailas Formation was deposited by alluvial-fan, low-sinuosity fl uvial, and deep lacustrine depositional systems in buttress unconformity upon andesitic volcanic (ca. 67 Ma) and granitoid (ca. 55 Ma) rocks of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Abundant organic material, fi sh and amphibian fossils, and sparse palynomorphs suggest that Kailas lakes developed in a warm tropical climate, quite different from coeval basins in central Tibet, which formed at high elevation in a dry climate. Provenance and paleocurrent data indicate that the bulk of the Kailas Formation was derived from the northerly Gangdese magmatic arc (Kailas magmatic complex). Only during the latest stages of basin fi lling was abundant sediment derived from the southerly Tethyan Himalayan thrust belt in the hanging wall of the Great Counter thrust. Kailas basin stratigraphy resembles a classic lacustrine sandwich and is most consistent with deposition in an extensional or transtensional rift that developed along the suture zone some 30 m.y. after the onset of Indo-Eurasian intercontinental collision. Correlative coarse-grained syntectonic strata similar to the Kailas Formation crop out along a >1300 km length of theIndus-Yarlung suture zone, suggesting that the basin-forming mechanism recorded by the Kailas Formation was of regional signifi cance and not exclusively related to local kinematics near the southeastern end of the Karakoram fault. We propose that extension of the southern edge of the Eurasian plate was caused by southward rollback of underthrusting Indian continental lithosphere, followed by slab break-off. Alternating episodes of hard and soft collision, asso ciated with regional contraction and extension, respectively, in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogenic system may have been related to changing dynamics of the subducting/underthrusting Indian plate.",
author = "Decelles, {Peter G} and Kapp, {Paul A} and Jay Quade and Gehrels, {George E}",
year = "2011",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1130/B30329.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "123",
pages = "1337--1362",
journal = "Geological Society of America Bulletin",
issn = "0016-7606",
publisher = "Geological Society of America",
number = "7-8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Oligocene-Miocene Kailas basin, southwestern Tibet

T2 - Record of postcollisional upper-plate extension in the Indus-Yarlung suture zone

AU - Decelles, Peter G

AU - Kapp, Paul A

AU - Quade, Jay

AU - Gehrels, George E

PY - 2011/7

Y1 - 2011/7

N2 - The Kailas basin developed during late Oligocene-early Miocene time along the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southwestern Tibet. The >2.5-km-thick basin-fi lling Kailas Formation consists of a lower coarse-grained proximal conglomerate and more distal fl uvial sandstone member, a lacustrine shale and sandstone member, and an upper redbed clastic member. Felsic tuffs and trachyandesite layers are locally present. De trital and igneous zircon U-Pb ages indicate depo sition of most of the Kailas Formation between ca. 26 and 24 Ma. The Kailas Formation was deposited by alluvial-fan, low-sinuosity fl uvial, and deep lacustrine depositional systems in buttress unconformity upon andesitic volcanic (ca. 67 Ma) and granitoid (ca. 55 Ma) rocks of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Abundant organic material, fi sh and amphibian fossils, and sparse palynomorphs suggest that Kailas lakes developed in a warm tropical climate, quite different from coeval basins in central Tibet, which formed at high elevation in a dry climate. Provenance and paleocurrent data indicate that the bulk of the Kailas Formation was derived from the northerly Gangdese magmatic arc (Kailas magmatic complex). Only during the latest stages of basin fi lling was abundant sediment derived from the southerly Tethyan Himalayan thrust belt in the hanging wall of the Great Counter thrust. Kailas basin stratigraphy resembles a classic lacustrine sandwich and is most consistent with deposition in an extensional or transtensional rift that developed along the suture zone some 30 m.y. after the onset of Indo-Eurasian intercontinental collision. Correlative coarse-grained syntectonic strata similar to the Kailas Formation crop out along a >1300 km length of theIndus-Yarlung suture zone, suggesting that the basin-forming mechanism recorded by the Kailas Formation was of regional signifi cance and not exclusively related to local kinematics near the southeastern end of the Karakoram fault. We propose that extension of the southern edge of the Eurasian plate was caused by southward rollback of underthrusting Indian continental lithosphere, followed by slab break-off. Alternating episodes of hard and soft collision, asso ciated with regional contraction and extension, respectively, in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogenic system may have been related to changing dynamics of the subducting/underthrusting Indian plate.

AB - The Kailas basin developed during late Oligocene-early Miocene time along the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southwestern Tibet. The >2.5-km-thick basin-fi lling Kailas Formation consists of a lower coarse-grained proximal conglomerate and more distal fl uvial sandstone member, a lacustrine shale and sandstone member, and an upper redbed clastic member. Felsic tuffs and trachyandesite layers are locally present. De trital and igneous zircon U-Pb ages indicate depo sition of most of the Kailas Formation between ca. 26 and 24 Ma. The Kailas Formation was deposited by alluvial-fan, low-sinuosity fl uvial, and deep lacustrine depositional systems in buttress unconformity upon andesitic volcanic (ca. 67 Ma) and granitoid (ca. 55 Ma) rocks of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Abundant organic material, fi sh and amphibian fossils, and sparse palynomorphs suggest that Kailas lakes developed in a warm tropical climate, quite different from coeval basins in central Tibet, which formed at high elevation in a dry climate. Provenance and paleocurrent data indicate that the bulk of the Kailas Formation was derived from the northerly Gangdese magmatic arc (Kailas magmatic complex). Only during the latest stages of basin fi lling was abundant sediment derived from the southerly Tethyan Himalayan thrust belt in the hanging wall of the Great Counter thrust. Kailas basin stratigraphy resembles a classic lacustrine sandwich and is most consistent with deposition in an extensional or transtensional rift that developed along the suture zone some 30 m.y. after the onset of Indo-Eurasian intercontinental collision. Correlative coarse-grained syntectonic strata similar to the Kailas Formation crop out along a >1300 km length of theIndus-Yarlung suture zone, suggesting that the basin-forming mechanism recorded by the Kailas Formation was of regional signifi cance and not exclusively related to local kinematics near the southeastern end of the Karakoram fault. We propose that extension of the southern edge of the Eurasian plate was caused by southward rollback of underthrusting Indian continental lithosphere, followed by slab break-off. Alternating episodes of hard and soft collision, asso ciated with regional contraction and extension, respectively, in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogenic system may have been related to changing dynamics of the subducting/underthrusting Indian plate.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79959309648&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79959309648&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1130/B30329.1

DO - 10.1130/B30329.1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:79959309648

VL - 123

SP - 1337

EP - 1362

JO - Geological Society of America Bulletin

JF - Geological Society of America Bulletin

SN - 0016-7606

IS - 7-8

ER -