On Coordination of Smart Grid and Cooperative Cloud Providers

Monireh Mohebbi Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein Manshaei, Mehdi Naderi Soorki, Walid Saad, Maziar Goudarzi, Dusit Niyato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Cooperative cloud providers in the form of cloud federations can potentially reduce their energy costs by exploiting electricity price fluctuations across different locations. In this environment, on the one hand, the electricity price has a significant influence on the federations formed, and, thus, on the profit earned by the cloud providers, and on the other hand, the cloud cooperation has an inevitable impact on the performance of the smart grid. In this regard, the interaction between independent cloud providers and the smart grid is modeled as a two-stage Stackelberg game interleaved with a coalitional game in this article. In this game, in the first stage the smart grid, as a leader chooses a proper electricity pricing mechanism to maximize its own profit. In the second stage, cloud providers cooperatively manage their workload to minimize their electricity costs. Given the dynamic of cloud providers in the federation formation process, an optimization model based on a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP) has been used by the smart grid to achieve the optimal policy. Numerical results show that the proposed solution yields around 28% and 29% profit improvement on average for the smart grid, and the cloud providers, respectively, compared to the noncooperative scheme.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9099074
Pages (from-to)672-683
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Cloud federation
  • data center
  • demand response
  • game theory
  • smart grid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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