Ionizing- and ultraviolet-radiation cause cell damage or death by directly altering DNA and protein structures and by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). These processes disrupt cellular energy metabolism at multiple levels. The formation of DNA strand breaks activates signaling pathways that consume NAD, which can lead to the depletion of cellular ATP. Poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP-1) is the enzyme responsible for much of the NAD degradation following DNA damage, although numerous other PARPs have been discovered recently that await functional characterization. Studies on mouse epidermis in vivo and on human cells in culture have shown that UV-B radiation provokes the transient degradation of NAD and the synthesis of ADP-ribose polymers by PARP-1. This enzyme functions as a component of a DNA damage surveillance network in eukaryotic cells to determine the fate of cells following genotoxic stress. Additionally, the activation of PARP-1 results in the activation of a nuclear proteasome that degrades damaged nuclear proteins including histones. Identifying approaches to optimize these responses while maintaining the energy status of cells is likely to be very important in minimizing the deleterious effects of solar radiation on skin.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2001|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging