Oral ciprofloxacin in the treatment of serious soft tissue and bone infections. Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics

D. E. Nix, T. J. Cumbo, P. Kuritzky, J. M. Devito, J. J. Schentag

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44 Scopus citations

Abstract

Forty-eight patients were enrolled in a clinical study of oral ciprofloxacin for the treatment of soft tissue or bone infections. Patients received 500 to 750 mg of ciprofloxacin every 12 hours. In the predominately older population studied, there were 13 patients with osteomyelitis, 24 diabetic patients with soft tissue infection and probable osteomyelitis, and 11 patients with other soft tissue infections. Infecting pathogens included Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 25 patients, Serratia species in nine patients, Staphylococcus aureus in 13 patients, and other aerobic gram-negative rods in 21 patients. Clinical response (defined as resolution or improvement) was noted in 84 percent of patients with non-diabetic osteomyelitis, in 79 percent of patients with diabetic infections, and in 91 percent of patients with soft tissue infections. Microbiologic outcome was very favorable in 75 percent of cases, and Pseudomonas responded as well as any other pathogen. Pharmacokinetic properties of ciprofloxacin were evaluated in 12 patients, and the data were analyzed using both compartmental and non-compartmental analyses. Mean values for compartmental rate constants (hours-1) were as follows: absorption rate constant = 1.15; intercompartmental rate constants, k12 = 0.48, and k21 = 0.58; elimination rate constant = 0.46; distribution rate constant = 1.31; and terminal elimination rate constant = 0.19. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state/bioavailability was 196 liters and total body clearance/bioavailability was 45.9 liters/hour. The mean time to peak concentration was 1.3 hours. The mean peak concentration as determined by compartmental fitting (2.4 μg/ml) underestimated the observed peak (3.2 μg/ml) by 24.8 percent. Clearance of ciprofloxacin was similar regardless of the method used to fit the data, whereas the volume of distribution was significantly different when the two analysis techniques were compared. Ciprofloxacin was well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse reactions being rash, gastrointestinal intolerance, and increased levels of liver enzymes, each of which occurred in five patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-153
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Volume82
Issue number4 A
StatePublished - Dec 1 1987
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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