Background: Some patients with low-grade lymphoid malignancies develop transformed disease, requiring stem cell transplantation (SCT). SCT outcomes in transformed low-grade lymphoid malignancies may differ from those of nontransformed disease or other aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We conducted a pooled analysis of the clinical outcomes of allogeneic versus high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous SCT in adult patients with transformed low-grade lymphoid malignancies. Methods: A PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane search yielded 4 comparative studies reporting allogeneic versus HDT with autologous SCT outcomes in adults (age ≥18) with transformed low-grade lymphoid malignancies, including follicular, chronic/small lymphocytic, and marginal zone lymphoma. Risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated using random-effects models. Results: Rates for overall survival (OS) were 51.0 versus 69.5% (RR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.02, p = 0.001), rates of relapse were 37.3 versus 35.3% (RR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.70-1.55, p = 0.84), and rates of transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 33.3 versus 7.2% (RR = 4.52, 95% CI 2.75-7.43, p < 0.00001) for allogeneic versus autologous SCT. Previous rituximab treatment, reduced intensity conditioning regimen prior to SCT, or original pathology had no prognostic impact. Conclusion: HDT followed by autologous SCT was associated with lower TRM and a better OS, but there was no difference in relapse versus allogeneic SCT. Autologous SCT may be the better therapeutic option, considering the second chance of allogeneic SCT in the case of relapse.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- Autologous stem cell transplantation
- Transformed low-grade lymphoid malignancy
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