Perceptions of efficacy, expressed emotion, and the course of schizophrenia: The case of emotional overinvolvement

Nicholas J.K. Breitborde, Steven R. López, Adrian Aguilera, Alex Kopelowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Although it is clear that expressed emotion (EE) is associated with the course of schizophrenia, proposed models for this association have struggled to account for the relationship between the EE index of emotional overinvolvement (EOI) and relapse. To expand our understanding of the EOI-relapse association, we first attempted to replicate the finding that the EOI-relapse association is curvilinear among 55 Mexican-Americans with schizophrenia and their caregiving relatives. Second, we evaluated whether the caregivers' perception of their ill relative's efficacy may account for the EOI-relapse association. Our results comport with past findings with regard to the curvilinear nature of the EOI-relapse association among Mexican-Americans and suggest that EOI may only seem to be a risk factor of relapse because of its strong association with a true risk factor for relapse (i.e., caregivers' perception of their ill relative's efficacy).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)833-840
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013



  • Mexican-Americans
  • Schizophrenia
  • emotional overinvolvement
  • expressed emotion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this