Performance of drug-drug interaction software for personal digital assistants

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) allow healthcare professionals to check for potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at the point of care, reducing the need to consult traditional references. However, PDAs can only be as effective as the software programs they use. OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of DDI software programs manufactured for Palm OS-compatible PDAs in detecting clinically important DDIs. METHODS: Eight PDA software programs were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for 16 well-documented DDIs contained within 6 simulated patient profiles. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the software programs ranged from 0.81 to 1.0, specificity ranged from 0.52 to 1.0, positive predictive values ranged from 0.62 to 1.0, and negative predictive values ranged from 0.88 to 1.0. Five programs scored perfect sensitivity scores: Druglx, ePocrates Rx, ePocrates Rx Pro, Lexi-Interact, and the Tarascon pocket Pharmacopoeia. Of these, the ePocrates programs scored the highest in specificity (0.9), while Lexi-lnteract and the Tarascon pocket Pharmacopoeia scored considerably lower (0.52). Mosbylx was the only program to score a 1.0 in specificity; however, its sensitivity was just 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: ePocrates Rx and ePocrates Rx Pro scored greater than or equal to 90% in regard to both sensitivity and specificity, making them the most reliable in detecting the clinically relevant interactions studied without the distraction of detecting those of no clinical significance. In addition, ePocrates Rx is updated regularly and is easily accessible on the Internet at no cost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)850-855
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Pharmacotherapy
Volume40
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2006

Fingerprint

Handheld Computers
Drug Interactions
Software
Pharmacopoeias
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Point-of-Care Systems
Sensitivity and Specificity
Internet
Delivery of Health Care
Costs and Cost Analysis

Keywords

  • Drug information
  • Drug interactions
  • Personal digital assistants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

Performance of drug-drug interaction software for personal digital assistants. / Perkins, Natalie A.; Murphy, John E; Malone, Daniel C; Armstrong, Edward P.

In: Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 40, No. 5, 05.2006, p. 850-855.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{904fbdc75a7745e19ef53284ce0d2c8d,
title = "Performance of drug-drug interaction software for personal digital assistants",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) allow healthcare professionals to check for potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at the point of care, reducing the need to consult traditional references. However, PDAs can only be as effective as the software programs they use. OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of DDI software programs manufactured for Palm OS-compatible PDAs in detecting clinically important DDIs. METHODS: Eight PDA software programs were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for 16 well-documented DDIs contained within 6 simulated patient profiles. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the software programs ranged from 0.81 to 1.0, specificity ranged from 0.52 to 1.0, positive predictive values ranged from 0.62 to 1.0, and negative predictive values ranged from 0.88 to 1.0. Five programs scored perfect sensitivity scores: Druglx, ePocrates Rx, ePocrates Rx Pro, Lexi-Interact, and the Tarascon pocket Pharmacopoeia. Of these, the ePocrates programs scored the highest in specificity (0.9), while Lexi-lnteract and the Tarascon pocket Pharmacopoeia scored considerably lower (0.52). Mosbylx was the only program to score a 1.0 in specificity; however, its sensitivity was just 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: ePocrates Rx and ePocrates Rx Pro scored greater than or equal to 90{\%} in regard to both sensitivity and specificity, making them the most reliable in detecting the clinically relevant interactions studied without the distraction of detecting those of no clinical significance. In addition, ePocrates Rx is updated regularly and is easily accessible on the Internet at no cost.",
keywords = "Drug information, Drug interactions, Personal digital assistants",
author = "Perkins, {Natalie A.} and Murphy, {John E} and Malone, {Daniel C} and Armstrong, {Edward P}",
year = "2006",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1345/aph.1G603",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "850--855",
journal = "Annals of Pharmacotherapy",
issn = "1060-0280",
publisher = "Harvey Whitney Books Company",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Performance of drug-drug interaction software for personal digital assistants

AU - Perkins, Natalie A.

AU - Murphy, John E

AU - Malone, Daniel C

AU - Armstrong, Edward P

PY - 2006/5

Y1 - 2006/5

N2 - BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) allow healthcare professionals to check for potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at the point of care, reducing the need to consult traditional references. However, PDAs can only be as effective as the software programs they use. OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of DDI software programs manufactured for Palm OS-compatible PDAs in detecting clinically important DDIs. METHODS: Eight PDA software programs were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for 16 well-documented DDIs contained within 6 simulated patient profiles. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the software programs ranged from 0.81 to 1.0, specificity ranged from 0.52 to 1.0, positive predictive values ranged from 0.62 to 1.0, and negative predictive values ranged from 0.88 to 1.0. Five programs scored perfect sensitivity scores: Druglx, ePocrates Rx, ePocrates Rx Pro, Lexi-Interact, and the Tarascon pocket Pharmacopoeia. Of these, the ePocrates programs scored the highest in specificity (0.9), while Lexi-lnteract and the Tarascon pocket Pharmacopoeia scored considerably lower (0.52). Mosbylx was the only program to score a 1.0 in specificity; however, its sensitivity was just 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: ePocrates Rx and ePocrates Rx Pro scored greater than or equal to 90% in regard to both sensitivity and specificity, making them the most reliable in detecting the clinically relevant interactions studied without the distraction of detecting those of no clinical significance. In addition, ePocrates Rx is updated regularly and is easily accessible on the Internet at no cost.

AB - BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) allow healthcare professionals to check for potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at the point of care, reducing the need to consult traditional references. However, PDAs can only be as effective as the software programs they use. OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of DDI software programs manufactured for Palm OS-compatible PDAs in detecting clinically important DDIs. METHODS: Eight PDA software programs were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for 16 well-documented DDIs contained within 6 simulated patient profiles. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the software programs ranged from 0.81 to 1.0, specificity ranged from 0.52 to 1.0, positive predictive values ranged from 0.62 to 1.0, and negative predictive values ranged from 0.88 to 1.0. Five programs scored perfect sensitivity scores: Druglx, ePocrates Rx, ePocrates Rx Pro, Lexi-Interact, and the Tarascon pocket Pharmacopoeia. Of these, the ePocrates programs scored the highest in specificity (0.9), while Lexi-lnteract and the Tarascon pocket Pharmacopoeia scored considerably lower (0.52). Mosbylx was the only program to score a 1.0 in specificity; however, its sensitivity was just 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: ePocrates Rx and ePocrates Rx Pro scored greater than or equal to 90% in regard to both sensitivity and specificity, making them the most reliable in detecting the clinically relevant interactions studied without the distraction of detecting those of no clinical significance. In addition, ePocrates Rx is updated regularly and is easily accessible on the Internet at no cost.

KW - Drug information

KW - Drug interactions

KW - Personal digital assistants

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33646771664&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33646771664&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1345/aph.1G603

DO - 10.1345/aph.1G603

M3 - Article

C2 - 16622155

AN - SCOPUS:33646771664

VL - 40

SP - 850

EP - 855

JO - Annals of Pharmacotherapy

JF - Annals of Pharmacotherapy

SN - 1060-0280

IS - 5

ER -