Performance of Prostate Health Index in Biopsy Naïve Black Men

Rilwan Babajide, Samuel Carbunaru, Oluwarotimi S. Nettey, Karriem S. Watson, Alfreda Holloway-Beth, Tiffany McDowell, Josef Ben Levi, Marcus Murray, James Stinson, Courtney M.P. Hollowell, Daniel P. Dalton, Le'Andre Moore, Rick A. Kittles, Peter H. Gann, Edward M. Schaeffer, Adam B. Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE: The Prostate Health Index is validated for prostate cancer detection but has not been well validated for Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer detection in Black men. We hypothesize that the Prostate Health Index has greater accuracy than prostate specific antigen for detection of Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer. We estimated probability of overall and Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer across previously established Prostate Health Index ranges and identified Prostate Health Index cutoffs that maximize specificity for Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer with sensitivity >90%. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited a "cancer-free" Black control cohort (135 patients) and a cohort of biopsy naïve Black men (158) biopsied for elevated prostate specific antigen. Descriptive statistics compared the prostate cancer cases and controls and the frequency of Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer across Prostate Health Index scores. Receiver operating characteristics compared the discrimination of prostate specific antigen, Prostate Health Index and other prostate specific antigen related biomarkers. Sensitivity and specificity for Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer detection were assessed at prostate specific antigen and Prostate Health Index thresholds alone and in series. RESULTS: Of biopsied subjects 32.9% had Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer. In Blacks with prostate specific antigen from 4.0-10.0 ng/ml, Prostate Health Index and prostate specific antigen had similar discrimination for Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer (0.63 vs 0.57, p=0.27). In Blacks with prostate specific antigen ≤10.0, a threshold of prostate specific antigen ≥4.0 had 90.4% sensitivity for Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer; a threshold of prostate specific antigen ≥4.0 with Prostate Health Index ≥35.0 in series avoided unnecessary biopsy in 33.0% of men but missed 17.3% of Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer. Prostate specific antigen ≥4.0 with Prostate Health Index ≥28.0 in series spared biopsy in 17.9%, while maintaining 90.4% sensitivity of Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The Prostate Health Index has moderate accuracy in detecting Gleason grade group 2-5 prostate cancer in Blacks, but Prostate Health Index ≥28.0 can be safely used to avoid some unnecessary biopsies in Blacks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)718-724
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of urology
Volume205
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

Keywords

  • African Americans
  • biomarkers
  • comparative effectiveness research
  • prostatic neoplasms
  • sensitivity and specificity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Performance of Prostate Health Index in Biopsy Naïve Black Men'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this