Peritoneal coccidioidomycosis is extremely rare. This report describes a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus who presented with unexplained ascites and was found to have peritoneal coccidioidomycosis. The ascites had a low serum-ascites albumin gradient, and laparoscopy showed peritoneal implants that grew Coccidioides immitis. This case is unique in several ways; this is the first case in which a patient's acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness was peritoneal coccidioidomycosis, and the serum-ascites albumin gradient determination as well as laparoscopy provided information critical to the diagnosis. This patient's dramatic response to systemic antifungal therapy, as evidenced by resolution of ascites and constitutional symptoms, underscores the importance of timely diagnosis and prompt therapy. In summary, this report reviews the previous cases of coccidioidal peritonitis and reports the first case in which localized peritoneal coccidioidomycosis was the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.
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