Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water

Mark J. Benotti, Rebecca A. Trenholm, Brett J. Vanderford, Janie C. Holady, Benjamin D. Stanford, Shane A Snyder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1041 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The drinking water for more than 28 million people was screened for a diverse group of pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and other unregulated organic contaminants. Source water, finished drinking water, and distribution system (tap) water from 19 U.S. water utilities was analyzed for 51 compounds between 2006 and 2007. The 11 most frequently detected compounds were atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, naproxen, phenytoin, sulfamethoxazole, TCEP, and trimethoprim. Median concentrations of these compounds were less than 10 ng/L, except for sulfamethoxazole in source water (12 ng/L),TCEP in source water (120 ng/L), and atrazine in source,finished, and distribution system water (32, 49, and 49 ng/L). Atrazine was detected in source waters far removed from agricultural application where wastewater was the only known source of organic contaminants. The occurrence of compounds in finished drinking water was controlled by the type of chemical oxidation (ozone or chlorine) used at each plant. At one drinking water treatment plant, summed monthly concentrations of the detected analytes in source and finished water are reported. Atenolol, atrazine, DEET, estrone, meprobamate, and trimethoprim can serve as indicator compounds representing potential contamination from other pharmaceuticals and EDCs and can gauge the efficacy of treatment processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)597-603
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume43
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Drinking Water
drug
Atrazine
drinking water
atrazine
Water
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Meprobamate
Sulfamethoxazole
Trimethoprim
Atenolol
Estrone
water
agricultural application
DEET
Gemfibrozil
Impurities
pollutant
Water distribution systems
Naproxen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Benotti, M. J., Trenholm, R. A., Vanderford, B. J., Holady, J. C., Stanford, B. D., & Snyder, S. A. (2009). Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(3), 597-603. https://doi.org/10.1021/es801845a

Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water. / Benotti, Mark J.; Trenholm, Rebecca A.; Vanderford, Brett J.; Holady, Janie C.; Stanford, Benjamin D.; Snyder, Shane A.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 01.02.2009, p. 597-603.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Benotti, MJ, Trenholm, RA, Vanderford, BJ, Holady, JC, Stanford, BD & Snyder, SA 2009, 'Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water', Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 597-603. https://doi.org/10.1021/es801845a
Benotti, Mark J. ; Trenholm, Rebecca A. ; Vanderford, Brett J. ; Holady, Janie C. ; Stanford, Benjamin D. ; Snyder, Shane A. / Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2009 ; Vol. 43, No. 3. pp. 597-603.
@article{77a25261def745ab9105c5959c62127a,
title = "Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water",
abstract = "The drinking water for more than 28 million people was screened for a diverse group of pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and other unregulated organic contaminants. Source water, finished drinking water, and distribution system (tap) water from 19 U.S. water utilities was analyzed for 51 compounds between 2006 and 2007. The 11 most frequently detected compounds were atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, naproxen, phenytoin, sulfamethoxazole, TCEP, and trimethoprim. Median concentrations of these compounds were less than 10 ng/L, except for sulfamethoxazole in source water (12 ng/L),TCEP in source water (120 ng/L), and atrazine in source,finished, and distribution system water (32, 49, and 49 ng/L). Atrazine was detected in source waters far removed from agricultural application where wastewater was the only known source of organic contaminants. The occurrence of compounds in finished drinking water was controlled by the type of chemical oxidation (ozone or chlorine) used at each plant. At one drinking water treatment plant, summed monthly concentrations of the detected analytes in source and finished water are reported. Atenolol, atrazine, DEET, estrone, meprobamate, and trimethoprim can serve as indicator compounds representing potential contamination from other pharmaceuticals and EDCs and can gauge the efficacy of treatment processes.",
author = "Benotti, {Mark J.} and Trenholm, {Rebecca A.} and Vanderford, {Brett J.} and Holady, {Janie C.} and Stanford, {Benjamin D.} and Snyder, {Shane A}",
year = "2009",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/es801845a",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "43",
pages = "597--603",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water

AU - Benotti, Mark J.

AU - Trenholm, Rebecca A.

AU - Vanderford, Brett J.

AU - Holady, Janie C.

AU - Stanford, Benjamin D.

AU - Snyder, Shane A

PY - 2009/2/1

Y1 - 2009/2/1

N2 - The drinking water for more than 28 million people was screened for a diverse group of pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and other unregulated organic contaminants. Source water, finished drinking water, and distribution system (tap) water from 19 U.S. water utilities was analyzed for 51 compounds between 2006 and 2007. The 11 most frequently detected compounds were atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, naproxen, phenytoin, sulfamethoxazole, TCEP, and trimethoprim. Median concentrations of these compounds were less than 10 ng/L, except for sulfamethoxazole in source water (12 ng/L),TCEP in source water (120 ng/L), and atrazine in source,finished, and distribution system water (32, 49, and 49 ng/L). Atrazine was detected in source waters far removed from agricultural application where wastewater was the only known source of organic contaminants. The occurrence of compounds in finished drinking water was controlled by the type of chemical oxidation (ozone or chlorine) used at each plant. At one drinking water treatment plant, summed monthly concentrations of the detected analytes in source and finished water are reported. Atenolol, atrazine, DEET, estrone, meprobamate, and trimethoprim can serve as indicator compounds representing potential contamination from other pharmaceuticals and EDCs and can gauge the efficacy of treatment processes.

AB - The drinking water for more than 28 million people was screened for a diverse group of pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and other unregulated organic contaminants. Source water, finished drinking water, and distribution system (tap) water from 19 U.S. water utilities was analyzed for 51 compounds between 2006 and 2007. The 11 most frequently detected compounds were atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, naproxen, phenytoin, sulfamethoxazole, TCEP, and trimethoprim. Median concentrations of these compounds were less than 10 ng/L, except for sulfamethoxazole in source water (12 ng/L),TCEP in source water (120 ng/L), and atrazine in source,finished, and distribution system water (32, 49, and 49 ng/L). Atrazine was detected in source waters far removed from agricultural application where wastewater was the only known source of organic contaminants. The occurrence of compounds in finished drinking water was controlled by the type of chemical oxidation (ozone or chlorine) used at each plant. At one drinking water treatment plant, summed monthly concentrations of the detected analytes in source and finished water are reported. Atenolol, atrazine, DEET, estrone, meprobamate, and trimethoprim can serve as indicator compounds representing potential contamination from other pharmaceuticals and EDCs and can gauge the efficacy of treatment processes.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=63149135884&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=63149135884&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/es801845a

DO - 10.1021/es801845a

M3 - Article

C2 - 19244989

AN - SCOPUS:63149135884

VL - 43

SP - 597

EP - 603

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 3

ER -