Purpose: The feasibility and pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine (CsA) delivered intraperitoneally (IP) have not been previously explored. We performed a pharmacokinetic study of IP CsA followed by a phase I dose- escalation trial of the combination of IP CsA and carboplatin in refractory ovarian cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A pilot study was performed of three patients who received 1, 10, and 20 mg/kg IP CsA alone. Subsequently, a phase I trial of 35 patients was performed between April 1990 and April 1993. Whole-blood and IP fluid CsA concentrations were measured at serial time points. The highest dose delivered IP was 34.6 mg CsA/kg in combination with carboplatin (250 mg/m2 or 300 mg/m2, depending on creatinine clearance), which was not dose-escalated. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for CsA and half-life (T 1/4 ) were calculated. Objective and serologic responses were noted, and toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of delivering IP CsA alone was established. We observed a 1,000:1 ratio between IP fluid and blood concentrations at 20 mg CsA/kg. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed that at 20 mg CsA/kg, there was an IP fluid-to-blood AUC ratio of 600:1 in favor of peritoneal exposure. At the highest dose delivered, 34.6 mg CsA/kg, the mean IP CsA levels of 1,110 μg/mL were tolerated moderately well and the IP fluid-to-blood ratio of 1,000:1 was maintained. Blood and IP CsA concentrations were analyzed in the presence and absence of IP carboplatin. At 20 mg CsA/kg, there was no difference in either mean blood CsA levels (0.9 μg/mL) or mean IP CsA concentrations (1,000 μg/mL) obtained in the absence or presence of carboplatin. The most common toxicity in the phase I study was anemia, seen in 66% of patients. Common toxicities at the maximum CsA dose delivered (34.6 mg/kg) were anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hypertension. In this trial, three objective responses (two complete and one partial) were observed for a duration of 3 to 11 months. Control of platinum- resistant ascites was an important feature, noted in five of eight patients. Conclusion: We have established the feasibility of delivering IP CsA up to doses of 34.6 mg/kg in conjunction with carboplatin, and the sustaining of IP fluid to blood ratios of 1,000:1. The IP administration of CsA resulted in a favorable ratio of exposure for the peritoneal cavity compared with systemic exposure, indicating a therapeutic advantage of this approach with a significant decrease in systemic toxicity. We recommend that 34.6 mg/kg of IP CsA be tested as a phase II dose in combination with carboplatin in refractory ovarian cancer patients. This report provides the groundwork for future studies using IP CsA, both as a chemomodulator of platinum and of multidrug resistance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research