Near field holography is a method of using grating photomasks in which the m = -1 and m = 0 diffracted beams of a UV source interfere to form a standing wave pattern. This simple hologram can then be used to expose a grating pattern on a process wafer when held in near- contact. This technique is especially attractive for use in OEICs and PICs when fabrication of the grating masks is accomplished with e-beam lithography and dry etching, since the diffractive properties of the mask can be controlled by the physical parameters of the mask. The grating period on masks made in this way can be precisely controlled to produce arrays of lasers each separated by only a small change in frequency (order 100 GHz) as may be required for WDM applications. We review the phenomenology of fused silica phase grating masks and describe work toward establishing characterization criteria, implementing practical printing methods, improving e-beam precision, and demonstrating laser array performance. We discuss principle issues and progress in each of the technical areas.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering