Thin lithium fluoride (LiF) interlayers between the low work function electrode and the electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) result in improved device performance. We investigated the electronic structure of LiF coated Al and Pt electrodes by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Thin LiF films were grown in several steps onto Ar+ sputtered Al and Pt foils. After each growth step the surfaces were characterized in situ by XPS and UPS measurements. After evaluating band bending, work function and valence band offset for both samples, their band lineups were determined. Our measurements indicate that despite the insulating character of LiF in both samples, band bending is present in the LiF layer. The difference in band bending between the samples allows the conclusion that the driving force for the development of the band bending results from the contact potential between the metal and the LiF overlayer. The band bending is most likely caused by a redistribution of charged Frenkel or Schottky type defects within the LiF layer. The work function of both samples after LiF deposition was dramatically lowered compared to the values obtained on the clean sputtered metal surfaces.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)