Photosynthesis and conductance of spring wheat ears: Field response to free-air CO2 enrichment and limitations in water and nitrogen supply

F. Wechsung, R. L. Garcia, G. W. Wall, T. Kartschall, B. A. Kimball, P. Michaelis, P. J. Pinter, G. Wechsung, S. Grossman-Clarke, R. L. Lamorte, F. J. Adamsen, Steven Leavitt, T. L. Thompson, A. D. Matthias, T. J. Brooks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The mid-day responses of wheat ear CO2 and water vapour exchange to full-season CO2 enrichment were investigated using a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) apparatus. Spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L). cv. Yecora Rojo] was grown in two experiments under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 (C(a)) concentrations (approximately 370 μmol mol-1 and 550 μmol mol-1, respectively) combined first with two irrigation (Irr) schemes (Wet: 100% and Dry: 50% replacement of evapotranspiration) and then with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization (High: 350, Low: 70 kg ha-1 N). Blowers were used for C(a) enrichment. Ambient C(a) plots were exposed to blower induced winds as well the C(a) x N but not in the C(a) x Irr experiment. The net photosynthesis for the ears was increased by 58% and stomatal conductance (g(s)) was decreased by 26% due to elevated C(a) under ample water and N supply when blowers were applied to both C(a) treatments. The use of blowers in the C(a)-enriched plots only during the C(a) x Irr experiment (blower effect) and Low N supply restricted the enhancement of net photosynthesis of the ear due to higher C(a). In the latter case, the increase of net photosynthesis of the ear amounted to 26%. The decrease in g(s) caused by higher C(a) was not affected by the blower effect and N treatment. The mid-day enhancement of net photosynthesis due to elevated C(a) was higher for ears than for flag leaves and this effect was most pronounced under ample water and N supply. The contribution of ears to grain filling is therefore likely to increase in higher C(a) environments in the future. In the comparison between Wet and Dry, the higher C(a) did not alter the response of net photosynthesis of the ear and g(s) to Irr. However, C(a) enrichment increased the drought tolerance of net photosynthesis of the glume and delayed the increase of the awn portion of net photosynthesis of the ear during drought. Therefore, the role of awns for maintaining high net photosynthesis of the ear under drought may decrease when C(a) increases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)917-929
Number of pages13
JournalPlant, Cell and Environment
Volume23
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

Fingerprint

Water Supply
Photosynthesis
spring wheat
blowers
Triticum
Ear
ears
Nitrogen
carbon dioxide
Air
photosynthesis
air
nitrogen
water
Droughts
irrigation
drought
Steam
filling period
water vapor

Keywords

  • Ear
  • Gas exchange
  • High CO
  • Nitrogen deficiency
  • Triticum aestivum L.
  • Water stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

Cite this

Photosynthesis and conductance of spring wheat ears : Field response to free-air CO2 enrichment and limitations in water and nitrogen supply. / Wechsung, F.; Garcia, R. L.; Wall, G. W.; Kartschall, T.; Kimball, B. A.; Michaelis, P.; Pinter, P. J.; Wechsung, G.; Grossman-Clarke, S.; Lamorte, R. L.; Adamsen, F. J.; Leavitt, Steven; Thompson, T. L.; Matthias, A. D.; Brooks, T. J.

In: Plant, Cell and Environment, Vol. 23, No. 9, 2000, p. 917-929.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wechsung, F, Garcia, RL, Wall, GW, Kartschall, T, Kimball, BA, Michaelis, P, Pinter, PJ, Wechsung, G, Grossman-Clarke, S, Lamorte, RL, Adamsen, FJ, Leavitt, S, Thompson, TL, Matthias, AD & Brooks, TJ 2000, 'Photosynthesis and conductance of spring wheat ears: Field response to free-air CO2 enrichment and limitations in water and nitrogen supply', Plant, Cell and Environment, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 917-929. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00603.x
Wechsung, F. ; Garcia, R. L. ; Wall, G. W. ; Kartschall, T. ; Kimball, B. A. ; Michaelis, P. ; Pinter, P. J. ; Wechsung, G. ; Grossman-Clarke, S. ; Lamorte, R. L. ; Adamsen, F. J. ; Leavitt, Steven ; Thompson, T. L. ; Matthias, A. D. ; Brooks, T. J. / Photosynthesis and conductance of spring wheat ears : Field response to free-air CO2 enrichment and limitations in water and nitrogen supply. In: Plant, Cell and Environment. 2000 ; Vol. 23, No. 9. pp. 917-929.
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T2 - Field response to free-air CO2 enrichment and limitations in water and nitrogen supply

AU - Wechsung, F.

AU - Garcia, R. L.

AU - Wall, G. W.

AU - Kartschall, T.

AU - Kimball, B. A.

AU - Michaelis, P.

AU - Pinter, P. J.

AU - Wechsung, G.

AU - Grossman-Clarke, S.

AU - Lamorte, R. L.

AU - Adamsen, F. J.

AU - Leavitt, Steven

AU - Thompson, T. L.

AU - Matthias, A. D.

AU - Brooks, T. J.

PY - 2000

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N2 - The mid-day responses of wheat ear CO2 and water vapour exchange to full-season CO2 enrichment were investigated using a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) apparatus. Spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L). cv. Yecora Rojo] was grown in two experiments under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 (C(a)) concentrations (approximately 370 μmol mol-1 and 550 μmol mol-1, respectively) combined first with two irrigation (Irr) schemes (Wet: 100% and Dry: 50% replacement of evapotranspiration) and then with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization (High: 350, Low: 70 kg ha-1 N). Blowers were used for C(a) enrichment. Ambient C(a) plots were exposed to blower induced winds as well the C(a) x N but not in the C(a) x Irr experiment. The net photosynthesis for the ears was increased by 58% and stomatal conductance (g(s)) was decreased by 26% due to elevated C(a) under ample water and N supply when blowers were applied to both C(a) treatments. The use of blowers in the C(a)-enriched plots only during the C(a) x Irr experiment (blower effect) and Low N supply restricted the enhancement of net photosynthesis of the ear due to higher C(a). In the latter case, the increase of net photosynthesis of the ear amounted to 26%. The decrease in g(s) caused by higher C(a) was not affected by the blower effect and N treatment. The mid-day enhancement of net photosynthesis due to elevated C(a) was higher for ears than for flag leaves and this effect was most pronounced under ample water and N supply. The contribution of ears to grain filling is therefore likely to increase in higher C(a) environments in the future. In the comparison between Wet and Dry, the higher C(a) did not alter the response of net photosynthesis of the ear and g(s) to Irr. However, C(a) enrichment increased the drought tolerance of net photosynthesis of the glume and delayed the increase of the awn portion of net photosynthesis of the ear during drought. Therefore, the role of awns for maintaining high net photosynthesis of the ear under drought may decrease when C(a) increases.

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KW - High CO

KW - Nitrogen deficiency

KW - Triticum aestivum L.

KW - Water stress

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