Phylogenetic analysis of the alpha-globin pseudogene-4 (Hba-ps4) locus in the house mouse species complex reveals a stepwise evolution of t haplotypes

M. F. Hammer, L. M. Silver

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35 Scopus citations


A parsimony analysis was performed on restriction sites at the Hba-ps4 pseudogene locus within one of four inversions associated with mouse t haplotypes. The results suggest that all t haplotypes form a monophyletic group and that the in(17)4 inversion originated before the radiation of the Mus musculus species complex but after the divergence of the lineages leading to M. spretus, M. abbotti, and M. hortulanus. A time frame based on the evolutionary rate of mouse pseudogenes places the origin of this t haplotype inversion at 1.5 Mya, or ~ 1.5 Myr after the origin of the more proximal t complex inversion, in(17)2. The accumulated evidence indicates that complete t haplotypes have been assembled in a stepwise manner, with each of these inversions occurring on separate chromosomal lineages and at different evolutionary times. In addition, the evolutionary relationships of pseudogene sequences resulting from genetic exchange between wild-type and t haplotype alleles were examined. Analysis of sequences from the 5' and 3' sides of a putative site of recombination resulted in cladograms with different topologies. The implications for hypotheses concerning the evolutionary forces acting on t haplotypes and their rapid propagation throughout worldwide populations of mice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)971-1001
Number of pages31
JournalMolecular biology and evolution
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 12 1993



  • evolution
  • gene conversion
  • house mice
  • parsimony
  • pseudogene
  • t haplotype

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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