Phylogeny, ecology, and the origins of climate-richness relationships

Kenneth H. Kozak, John J Wiens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many studies show that species richness is correlated with climate, especially among local sites within a region. However, few studies have addressed how these climate-diversity relationships actually arise. Only a few processes can directly change species richness (i.e., speciation, extinction, dispersal), and these processes may be best studied by incorporating a phylogenetic perspective. Here, we used a phylogenetic approach to address the causes of climate-diversity relationships in plethodontid salamanders by combining data on richness, climate, and phylogeny for 250 species. Our results suggest that species richness patterns in plethodontids are explained primarily by how long each region and climatic zone has been occupied, rather than by the effects of either area, species density (i.e., ecological limits), or climate on the rates of speciation or extinction. Across regions, diversity is related to time rather than climate. Within regions, significant climate-diversity relationships are also related to time, with higher richness in climatic regimes that have been occupied longer. Although some might think that phylogeny is unimportant at local scales and when climate and diversity are strongly correlated, we show that niche conservatism and phylogenetic history (time) combine to create species pools of different sizes in different habitats (climatic regimes), leading to variation in local species richness across these habitats within a region.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEcology
Volume93
Issue number8 SPEC. ISSUE
StatePublished - Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

phylogeny
ecology
climate
species richness
species diversity
phylogenetics
extinction
species pool
habitat
habitats
salamanders and newts
niche
niches
history

Keywords

  • Climate
  • Diversity
  • Phylogeny
  • Plethodontidae
  • Speciation
  • Species richness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Phylogeny, ecology, and the origins of climate-richness relationships. / Kozak, Kenneth H.; Wiens, John J.

In: Ecology, Vol. 93, No. 8 SPEC. ISSUE, 08.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kozak, Kenneth H. ; Wiens, John J. / Phylogeny, ecology, and the origins of climate-richness relationships. In: Ecology. 2012 ; Vol. 93, No. 8 SPEC. ISSUE.
@article{9e917b5bd60e4608a142b902900ece6a,
title = "Phylogeny, ecology, and the origins of climate-richness relationships",
abstract = "Many studies show that species richness is correlated with climate, especially among local sites within a region. However, few studies have addressed how these climate-diversity relationships actually arise. Only a few processes can directly change species richness (i.e., speciation, extinction, dispersal), and these processes may be best studied by incorporating a phylogenetic perspective. Here, we used a phylogenetic approach to address the causes of climate-diversity relationships in plethodontid salamanders by combining data on richness, climate, and phylogeny for 250 species. Our results suggest that species richness patterns in plethodontids are explained primarily by how long each region and climatic zone has been occupied, rather than by the effects of either area, species density (i.e., ecological limits), or climate on the rates of speciation or extinction. Across regions, diversity is related to time rather than climate. Within regions, significant climate-diversity relationships are also related to time, with higher richness in climatic regimes that have been occupied longer. Although some might think that phylogeny is unimportant at local scales and when climate and diversity are strongly correlated, we show that niche conservatism and phylogenetic history (time) combine to create species pools of different sizes in different habitats (climatic regimes), leading to variation in local species richness across these habitats within a region.",
keywords = "Climate, Diversity, Phylogeny, Plethodontidae, Speciation, Species richness",
author = "Kozak, {Kenneth H.} and Wiens, {John J}",
year = "2012",
month = "8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "93",
journal = "Ecology",
issn = "0012-9658",
publisher = "Ecological Society of America",
number = "8 SPEC. ISSUE",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Phylogeny, ecology, and the origins of climate-richness relationships

AU - Kozak, Kenneth H.

AU - Wiens, John J

PY - 2012/8

Y1 - 2012/8

N2 - Many studies show that species richness is correlated with climate, especially among local sites within a region. However, few studies have addressed how these climate-diversity relationships actually arise. Only a few processes can directly change species richness (i.e., speciation, extinction, dispersal), and these processes may be best studied by incorporating a phylogenetic perspective. Here, we used a phylogenetic approach to address the causes of climate-diversity relationships in plethodontid salamanders by combining data on richness, climate, and phylogeny for 250 species. Our results suggest that species richness patterns in plethodontids are explained primarily by how long each region and climatic zone has been occupied, rather than by the effects of either area, species density (i.e., ecological limits), or climate on the rates of speciation or extinction. Across regions, diversity is related to time rather than climate. Within regions, significant climate-diversity relationships are also related to time, with higher richness in climatic regimes that have been occupied longer. Although some might think that phylogeny is unimportant at local scales and when climate and diversity are strongly correlated, we show that niche conservatism and phylogenetic history (time) combine to create species pools of different sizes in different habitats (climatic regimes), leading to variation in local species richness across these habitats within a region.

AB - Many studies show that species richness is correlated with climate, especially among local sites within a region. However, few studies have addressed how these climate-diversity relationships actually arise. Only a few processes can directly change species richness (i.e., speciation, extinction, dispersal), and these processes may be best studied by incorporating a phylogenetic perspective. Here, we used a phylogenetic approach to address the causes of climate-diversity relationships in plethodontid salamanders by combining data on richness, climate, and phylogeny for 250 species. Our results suggest that species richness patterns in plethodontids are explained primarily by how long each region and climatic zone has been occupied, rather than by the effects of either area, species density (i.e., ecological limits), or climate on the rates of speciation or extinction. Across regions, diversity is related to time rather than climate. Within regions, significant climate-diversity relationships are also related to time, with higher richness in climatic regimes that have been occupied longer. Although some might think that phylogeny is unimportant at local scales and when climate and diversity are strongly correlated, we show that niche conservatism and phylogenetic history (time) combine to create species pools of different sizes in different habitats (climatic regimes), leading to variation in local species richness across these habitats within a region.

KW - Climate

KW - Diversity

KW - Phylogeny

KW - Plethodontidae

KW - Speciation

KW - Species richness

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84872513475&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84872513475&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84872513475

VL - 93

JO - Ecology

JF - Ecology

SN - 0012-9658

IS - 8 SPEC. ISSUE

ER -