Planck intermediate results: XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE

N. Aghanim, B. Altieri, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, N. Bartolo, E. Battaner, A. Beelen, K. Benabed, A. Benoit-Lévy, J. P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, M. Bethermin, P. Bielewicz, L. Bonavera, J. R. Bond, J. BorrillF. R. Bouchet, F. Boulanger, C. Burigana, E. Calabrese, R. Canameras, J. F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, A. Chamballu, R. R. Chary, H. C. Chiang, P. R. Christensen, D. L. Clements, S. Colombi, F. Couchot, B. P. Crill, A. Curto, L. Danese, K. Dassas, R. D. Davies, R. J. Davis, P. De Bernardis, A. De Rosa, G. De Zotti, J. Delabrouille, J. M. Diego, H. Dole, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, M. Douspis, A. Ducout, X. Dupac, G. Efstathiou, F. Elsner, T. A. Enßlin, E. Falgarone, I. Flores-Cacho, O. Forni, M. Frailis, A. A. Fraisse, E. Franceschi, A. Frejsel, Brenda Louise Frye, S. Galeotta, S. Galli, K. Ganga, M. Giard, E. Gjerløw, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Górski, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, D. Guéry, F. K. Hansen, D. Hanson, D. L. Harrison, G. Helou, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, S. R. Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, W. A. Holmes, W. Hovest, K. M. Huffenberger, G. Hurier, A. H. Jaffe, T. R. Jaffe, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, T. S. Kisner, R. Kneissl, J. Knoche, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, G. Lagache, J. M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, M. Lattanzi, C. R. Lawrence, E. Le Floc'h, R. Leonardi, F. Levrier, M. Liguori, P. B. Lilje, M. Linden-Vørnle, M. López-Caniego, P. M. Lubin, J. F. Macías-Pérez, T. MacKenzie, B. Maffei, N. Mandolesi, M. Maris, P. G. Martin, C. Martinache, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, S. Matarrese, P. Mazzotta, A. Melchiorri, A. Mennella, M. Migliaccio, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Mortlock, D. Munshi, J. A. Murphy, P. Natoli, M. Negrello, N. P H Nesvadba, D. Novikov, I. Novikov, A. Omont, L. Pagano, F. Pajot, F. Pasian, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, F. Perrotta, V. Pettorino, F. Piacentini, M. Piat, S. Plaszczynski, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, L. Popa, G. W. Pratt, S. Prunet, J. L. Puget, J. P. Rachen, W. T. Reach, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, C. Renault, I. Ristorcelli, G. Rocha, G. Roudier, B. Rusholme, M. Sandri, D. Santos, G. Savini, D. Scott, L. D. Spencer, V. Stolyarov, R. Sunyaev, D. Sutton, J. F. Sygnet, J. A. Tauber, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, M. Tristram, M. Tucci, G. Umana, L. Valenziano, J. Valiviita, I. Valtchanov, B. Van Tent, J. D. Vieira, P. Vielva, L. A. Wade, B. D. Wandelt, I. K. Wehus, N. Welikala, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353-857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4.′5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500 μm sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350 μm, with 3% peaking at 500 μm, and none peaking at 250 μm. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z > 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10σ. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z ≃ 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of Td = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4 × 1012 L, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M yr-1. If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures, the total IR luminosity of all their SPIRE-detected sources peaks at 4 × 1013 L, leading to total star formation rates of perhaps 7 × 103 Myr-1 per overdensity. Taken together, these sources show the signatures of high-z (z > 2) protoclusters of intensively star-forming galaxies. All these observations confirm the uniqueness of our sample compared to reference samples and demonstrate the ability of the all-sky Planck-HFI cold sources to select populations of cosmological and astrophysical interest for structure formation studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA30
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume582
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015

Fingerprint

galaxies
reference sample
cirrus
dust
star formation rate
sky
cold
rate
luminosity
temperature
uniqueness
line of sight
catalogs
astrophysics
brightness
frequency ranges
projection
signatures
color
stars

Keywords

  • cosmology: observations
  • galaxies: clusters: general
  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • galaxies: star formation
  • large-scale structure of Universe

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Planck intermediate results : XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE. / Aghanim, N.; Altieri, B.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beelen, A.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Canameras, R.; Cardoso, J. F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Danese, L.; Dassas, K.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; De Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Falgarone, E.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frye, Brenda Louise; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guéry, D.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J. M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacKenzie, T.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinache, C.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P H; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Omont, A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Sygnet, J. F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Van Tent, B.; Vieira, J. D.; Vielva, P.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 582, A30, 01.10.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aghanim, N, Altieri, B, Arnaud, M, Ashdown, M, Aumont, J, Baccigalupi, C, Banday, AJ, Barreiro, RB, Bartolo, N, Battaner, E, Beelen, A, Benabed, K, Benoit-Lévy, A, Bernard, JP, Bersanelli, M, Bethermin, M, Bielewicz, P, Bonavera, L, Bond, JR, Borrill, J, Bouchet, FR, Boulanger, F, Burigana, C, Calabrese, E, Canameras, R, Cardoso, JF, Catalano, A, Chamballu, A, Chary, RR, Chiang, HC, Christensen, PR, Clements, DL, Colombi, S, Couchot, F, Crill, BP, Curto, A, Danese, L, Dassas, K, Davies, RD, Davis, RJ, De Bernardis, P, De Rosa, A, De Zotti, G, Delabrouille, J, Diego, JM, Dole, H, Donzelli, S, Doré, O, Douspis, M, Ducout, A, Dupac, X, Efstathiou, G, Elsner, F, Enßlin, TA, Falgarone, E, Flores-Cacho, I, Forni, O, Frailis, M, Fraisse, AA, Franceschi, E, Frejsel, A, Frye, BL, Galeotta, S, Galli, S, Ganga, K, Giard, M, Gjerløw, E, González-Nuevo, J, Górski, KM, Gregorio, A, Gruppuso, A, Guéry, D, Hansen, FK, Hanson, D, Harrison, DL, Helou, G, Hernández-Monteagudo, C, Hildebrandt, SR, Hivon, E, Hobson, M, Holmes, WA, Hovest, W, Huffenberger, KM, Hurier, G, Jaffe, AH, Jaffe, TR, Keihänen, E, Keskitalo, R, Kisner, TS, Kneissl, R, Knoche, J, Kunz, M, Kurki-Suonio, H, Lagache, G, Lamarre, JM, Lasenby, A, Lattanzi, M, Lawrence, CR, Le Floc'h, E, Leonardi, R, Levrier, F, Liguori, M, Lilje, PB, Linden-Vørnle, M, López-Caniego, M, Lubin, PM, Macías-Pérez, JF, MacKenzie, T, Maffei, B, Mandolesi, N, Maris, M, Martin, PG, Martinache, C, Martínez-González, E, Masi, S, Matarrese, S, Mazzotta, P, Melchiorri, A, Mennella, A, Migliaccio, M, Moneti, A, Montier, L, Morgante, G, Mortlock, D, Munshi, D, Murphy, JA, Natoli, P, Negrello, M, Nesvadba, NPH, Novikov, D, Novikov, I, Omont, A, Pagano, L, Pajot, F, Pasian, F, Perdereau, O, Perotto, L, Perrotta, F, Pettorino, V, Piacentini, F, Piat, M, Plaszczynski, S, Pointecouteau, E, Polenta, G, Popa, L, Pratt, GW, Prunet, S, Puget, JL, Rachen, JP, Reach, WT, Reinecke, M, Remazeilles, M, Renault, C, Ristorcelli, I, Rocha, G, Roudier, G, Rusholme, B, Sandri, M, Santos, D, Savini, G, Scott, D, Spencer, LD, Stolyarov, V, Sunyaev, R, Sutton, D, Sygnet, JF, Tauber, JA, Terenzi, L, Toffolatti, L, Tomasi, M, Tristram, M, Tucci, M, Umana, G, Valenziano, L, Valiviita, J, Valtchanov, I, Van Tent, B, Vieira, JD, Vielva, P, Wade, LA, Wandelt, BD, Wehus, IK, Welikala, N, Zacchei, A & Zonca, A 2015, 'Planck intermediate results: XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 582, A30. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424790
Aghanim, N. ; Altieri, B. ; Arnaud, M. ; Ashdown, M. ; Aumont, J. ; Baccigalupi, C. ; Banday, A. J. ; Barreiro, R. B. ; Bartolo, N. ; Battaner, E. ; Beelen, A. ; Benabed, K. ; Benoit-Lévy, A. ; Bernard, J. P. ; Bersanelli, M. ; Bethermin, M. ; Bielewicz, P. ; Bonavera, L. ; Bond, J. R. ; Borrill, J. ; Bouchet, F. R. ; Boulanger, F. ; Burigana, C. ; Calabrese, E. ; Canameras, R. ; Cardoso, J. F. ; Catalano, A. ; Chamballu, A. ; Chary, R. R. ; Chiang, H. C. ; Christensen, P. R. ; Clements, D. L. ; Colombi, S. ; Couchot, F. ; Crill, B. P. ; Curto, A. ; Danese, L. ; Dassas, K. ; Davies, R. D. ; Davis, R. J. ; De Bernardis, P. ; De Rosa, A. ; De Zotti, G. ; Delabrouille, J. ; Diego, J. M. ; Dole, H. ; Donzelli, S. ; Doré, O. ; Douspis, M. ; Ducout, A. ; Dupac, X. ; Efstathiou, G. ; Elsner, F. ; Enßlin, T. A. ; Falgarone, E. ; Flores-Cacho, I. ; Forni, O. ; Frailis, M. ; Fraisse, A. A. ; Franceschi, E. ; Frejsel, A. ; Frye, Brenda Louise ; Galeotta, S. ; Galli, S. ; Ganga, K. ; Giard, M. ; Gjerløw, E. ; González-Nuevo, J. ; Górski, K. M. ; Gregorio, A. ; Gruppuso, A. ; Guéry, D. ; Hansen, F. K. ; Hanson, D. ; Harrison, D. L. ; Helou, G. ; Hernández-Monteagudo, C. ; Hildebrandt, S. R. ; Hivon, E. ; Hobson, M. ; Holmes, W. A. ; Hovest, W. ; Huffenberger, K. M. ; Hurier, G. ; Jaffe, A. H. ; Jaffe, T. R. ; Keihänen, E. ; Keskitalo, R. ; Kisner, T. S. ; Kneissl, R. ; Knoche, J. ; Kunz, M. ; Kurki-Suonio, H. ; Lagache, G. ; Lamarre, J. M. ; Lasenby, A. ; Lattanzi, M. ; Lawrence, C. R. ; Le Floc'h, E. ; Leonardi, R. ; Levrier, F. ; Liguori, M. ; Lilje, P. B. ; Linden-Vørnle, M. ; López-Caniego, M. ; Lubin, P. M. ; Macías-Pérez, J. F. ; MacKenzie, T. ; Maffei, B. ; Mandolesi, N. ; Maris, M. ; Martin, P. G. ; Martinache, C. ; Martínez-González, E. ; Masi, S. ; Matarrese, S. ; Mazzotta, P. ; Melchiorri, A. ; Mennella, A. ; Migliaccio, M. ; Moneti, A. ; Montier, L. ; Morgante, G. ; Mortlock, D. ; Munshi, D. ; Murphy, J. A. ; Natoli, P. ; Negrello, M. ; Nesvadba, N. P H ; Novikov, D. ; Novikov, I. ; Omont, A. ; Pagano, L. ; Pajot, F. ; Pasian, F. ; Perdereau, O. ; Perotto, L. ; Perrotta, F. ; Pettorino, V. ; Piacentini, F. ; Piat, M. ; Plaszczynski, S. ; Pointecouteau, E. ; Polenta, G. ; Popa, L. ; Pratt, G. W. ; Prunet, S. ; Puget, J. L. ; Rachen, J. P. ; Reach, W. T. ; Reinecke, M. ; Remazeilles, M. ; Renault, C. ; Ristorcelli, I. ; Rocha, G. ; Roudier, G. ; Rusholme, B. ; Sandri, M. ; Santos, D. ; Savini, G. ; Scott, D. ; Spencer, L. D. ; Stolyarov, V. ; Sunyaev, R. ; Sutton, D. ; Sygnet, J. F. ; Tauber, J. A. ; Terenzi, L. ; Toffolatti, L. ; Tomasi, M. ; Tristram, M. ; Tucci, M. ; Umana, G. ; Valenziano, L. ; Valiviita, J. ; Valtchanov, I. ; Van Tent, B. ; Vieira, J. D. ; Vielva, P. ; Wade, L. A. ; Wandelt, B. D. ; Wehus, I. K. ; Welikala, N. ; Zacchei, A. ; Zonca, A. / Planck intermediate results : XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2015 ; Vol. 582.
@article{353170e1cace4d29a26124ccf82f9482,
title = "Planck intermediate results: XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE",
abstract = "We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These {"}cold{"} Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353-857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4.′5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500 μm sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94{\%} of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350 μm, with 3{\%} peaking at 500 μm, and none peaking at 250 μm. About 3{\%} are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z > 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98{\%}. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10σ. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z ≃ 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of Td = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4 × 1012 L⊙, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M⊙ yr-1. If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures, the total IR luminosity of all their SPIRE-detected sources peaks at 4 × 1013 L⊙, leading to total star formation rates of perhaps 7 × 103 M⊙yr-1 per overdensity. Taken together, these sources show the signatures of high-z (z > 2) protoclusters of intensively star-forming galaxies. All these observations confirm the uniqueness of our sample compared to reference samples and demonstrate the ability of the all-sky Planck-HFI cold sources to select populations of cosmological and astrophysical interest for structure formation studies.",
keywords = "cosmology: observations, galaxies: clusters: general, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: star formation, large-scale structure of Universe",
author = "N. Aghanim and B. Altieri and M. Arnaud and M. Ashdown and J. Aumont and C. Baccigalupi and Banday, {A. J.} and Barreiro, {R. B.} and N. Bartolo and E. Battaner and A. Beelen and K. Benabed and A. Benoit-L{\'e}vy and Bernard, {J. P.} and M. Bersanelli and M. Bethermin and P. Bielewicz and L. Bonavera and Bond, {J. R.} and J. Borrill and Bouchet, {F. R.} and F. Boulanger and C. Burigana and E. Calabrese and R. Canameras and Cardoso, {J. F.} and A. Catalano and A. Chamballu and Chary, {R. R.} and Chiang, {H. C.} and Christensen, {P. R.} and Clements, {D. L.} and S. Colombi and F. Couchot and Crill, {B. P.} and A. Curto and L. Danese and K. Dassas and Davies, {R. D.} and Davis, {R. J.} and {De Bernardis}, P. and {De Rosa}, A. and {De Zotti}, G. and J. Delabrouille and Diego, {J. M.} and H. Dole and S. Donzelli and O. Dor{\'e} and M. Douspis and A. Ducout and X. Dupac and G. Efstathiou and F. Elsner and En{\ss}lin, {T. A.} and E. Falgarone and I. Flores-Cacho and O. Forni and M. Frailis and Fraisse, {A. A.} and E. Franceschi and A. Frejsel and Frye, {Brenda Louise} and S. Galeotta and S. Galli and K. Ganga and M. Giard and E. Gjerl{\o}w and J. Gonz{\'a}lez-Nuevo and G{\'o}rski, {K. M.} and A. Gregorio and A. Gruppuso and D. Gu{\'e}ry and Hansen, {F. K.} and D. Hanson and Harrison, {D. L.} and G. Helou and C. Hern{\'a}ndez-Monteagudo and Hildebrandt, {S. R.} and E. Hivon and M. Hobson and Holmes, {W. A.} and W. Hovest and Huffenberger, {K. M.} and G. Hurier and Jaffe, {A. H.} and Jaffe, {T. R.} and E. Keih{\"a}nen and R. Keskitalo and Kisner, {T. S.} and R. Kneissl and J. Knoche and M. Kunz and H. Kurki-Suonio and G. Lagache and Lamarre, {J. M.} and A. Lasenby and M. Lattanzi and Lawrence, {C. R.} and {Le Floc'h}, E. and R. Leonardi and F. Levrier and M. Liguori and Lilje, {P. B.} and M. Linden-V{\o}rnle and M. L{\'o}pez-Caniego and Lubin, {P. M.} and Mac{\'i}as-P{\'e}rez, {J. F.} and T. MacKenzie and B. Maffei and N. Mandolesi and M. Maris and Martin, {P. G.} and C. Martinache and E. Mart{\'i}nez-Gonz{\'a}lez and S. Masi and S. Matarrese and P. Mazzotta and A. Melchiorri and A. Mennella and M. Migliaccio and A. Moneti and L. Montier and G. Morgante and D. Mortlock and D. Munshi and Murphy, {J. A.} and P. Natoli and M. Negrello and Nesvadba, {N. P H} and D. Novikov and I. Novikov and A. Omont and L. Pagano and F. Pajot and F. Pasian and O. Perdereau and L. Perotto and F. Perrotta and V. Pettorino and F. Piacentini and M. Piat and S. Plaszczynski and E. Pointecouteau and G. Polenta and L. Popa and Pratt, {G. W.} and S. Prunet and Puget, {J. L.} and Rachen, {J. P.} and Reach, {W. T.} and M. Reinecke and M. Remazeilles and C. Renault and I. Ristorcelli and G. Rocha and G. Roudier and B. Rusholme and M. Sandri and D. Santos and G. Savini and D. Scott and Spencer, {L. D.} and V. Stolyarov and R. Sunyaev and D. Sutton and Sygnet, {J. F.} and Tauber, {J. A.} and L. Terenzi and L. Toffolatti and M. Tomasi and M. Tristram and M. Tucci and G. Umana and L. Valenziano and J. Valiviita and I. Valtchanov and {Van Tent}, B. and Vieira, {J. D.} and P. Vielva and Wade, {L. A.} and Wandelt, {B. D.} and Wehus, {I. K.} and N. Welikala and A. Zacchei and A. Zonca",
year = "2015",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201424790",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "582",
journal = "Astronomy and Astrophysics",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Planck intermediate results

T2 - XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE

AU - Aghanim, N.

AU - Altieri, B.

AU - Arnaud, M.

AU - Ashdown, M.

AU - Aumont, J.

AU - Baccigalupi, C.

AU - Banday, A. J.

AU - Barreiro, R. B.

AU - Bartolo, N.

AU - Battaner, E.

AU - Beelen, A.

AU - Benabed, K.

AU - Benoit-Lévy, A.

AU - Bernard, J. P.

AU - Bersanelli, M.

AU - Bethermin, M.

AU - Bielewicz, P.

AU - Bonavera, L.

AU - Bond, J. R.

AU - Borrill, J.

AU - Bouchet, F. R.

AU - Boulanger, F.

AU - Burigana, C.

AU - Calabrese, E.

AU - Canameras, R.

AU - Cardoso, J. F.

AU - Catalano, A.

AU - Chamballu, A.

AU - Chary, R. R.

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PY - 2015/10/1

Y1 - 2015/10/1

N2 - We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353-857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4.′5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500 μm sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350 μm, with 3% peaking at 500 μm, and none peaking at 250 μm. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z > 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10σ. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z ≃ 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of Td = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4 × 1012 L⊙, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M⊙ yr-1. If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures, the total IR luminosity of all their SPIRE-detected sources peaks at 4 × 1013 L⊙, leading to total star formation rates of perhaps 7 × 103 M⊙yr-1 per overdensity. Taken together, these sources show the signatures of high-z (z > 2) protoclusters of intensively star-forming galaxies. All these observations confirm the uniqueness of our sample compared to reference samples and demonstrate the ability of the all-sky Planck-HFI cold sources to select populations of cosmological and astrophysical interest for structure formation studies.

AB - We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353-857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4.′5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500 μm sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350 μm, with 3% peaking at 500 μm, and none peaking at 250 μm. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z > 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10σ. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z ≃ 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of Td = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4 × 1012 L⊙, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M⊙ yr-1. If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures, the total IR luminosity of all their SPIRE-detected sources peaks at 4 × 1013 L⊙, leading to total star formation rates of perhaps 7 × 103 M⊙yr-1 per overdensity. Taken together, these sources show the signatures of high-z (z > 2) protoclusters of intensively star-forming galaxies. All these observations confirm the uniqueness of our sample compared to reference samples and demonstrate the ability of the all-sky Planck-HFI cold sources to select populations of cosmological and astrophysical interest for structure formation studies.

KW - cosmology: observations

KW - galaxies: clusters: general

KW - galaxies: evolution

KW - galaxies: high-redshift

KW - galaxies: star formation

KW - large-scale structure of Universe

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84943179985&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84943179985&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1051/0004-6361/201424790

DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201424790

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84943179985

VL - 582

JO - Astronomy and Astrophysics

JF - Astronomy and Astrophysics

SN - 0004-6361

M1 - A30

ER -