Postural Transitions during Activities of Daily Living Could Identify Frailty Status: Application of Wearable Technology to Identify Frailty during Unsupervised Condition

Saman Parvaneh, Martha J Mohler, Nima Toosizadeh, Gurtej Singh Grewal, Bijan Najafi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Impairment of physical function is a major indicator of frailty. Functional performance tests have been shown to be useful for identification of frailty in older adults. However, these tests are often not translatable into unsupervised and remote monitoring of frailty status at home and/or community settings. Objective: In this study, we explored daily postural transition quantified using a chest-worn wearable technology to identify frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: Spontaneous daily physical activity was monitored over 24 h in 120 community-dwelling elderly (age: 78 ± 8 years) using an unobtrusive wearable sensor (PAMSys™, BioSensics LLC, Watertown, MA, USA). Participants were classified as non-frail and pre-frail/frail using Fried's criteria. A validated software package was used to identify body postures and postural transition between each independent postural activity such as sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand. The transition from walking to sitting was further classified as quick sitting and cautious sitting based on presence/absence of a standing posture pause between sitting and walking. A general linear model univariate test was used for between-group comparison. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the association between sensor-derived parameters and age. Logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictors of frailty. Results: According to Fried's criteria, 63% of participants were pre-frail/frail. The total number of postural transitions, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand were, respectively, 25.2, 30.2, and 30.6% lower in the pre-frail/frail group when compared to the non-frail group (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.73-0.79). Furthermore, the ratio of cautious sitting was significantly higher by 6.2% in pre-frail/frail compared to non-frail (p = 0.025, Cohen's d = 0.22). Total number of postural transitions and the ratio of cautious sitting also showed significant negative and positive correlations with age, respectively (r = -0.51 and 0.29, p < 0.05). After applying a logistic regression model, among tested parameters, walk-to-stand (odds ratio [OR] = 0.997 p = 0.013), quick sitting (OR = 1.036, p = 0.05), and age (OR = 1.073, p = 0.016) were recognized as independent variables to identify frailty status. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that daily number of specific postural transitions such as walk-to-stand and quick sitting could be used for monitoring frailty status by unsupervised monitoring of daily physical activity. Further study is warranted to explore whether tracking the daily number of specific postural transitions is also sensitive to track change in the status of frailty over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalGerontology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Mar 11 2017

Fingerprint

Activities of Daily Living
Logistic Models
Technology
Independent Living
Odds Ratio
Posture
Walking
Linear Models
Thorax
Software
Exercise

Keywords

  • Cautious sitting
  • Frailty
  • Physical activity
  • Postural transition
  • Quick sitting
  • Telehealth
  • Walking to sitting
  • Wearable sensor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

@article{bfbba31163204df2b297fed6ad700fee,
title = "Postural Transitions during Activities of Daily Living Could Identify Frailty Status: Application of Wearable Technology to Identify Frailty during Unsupervised Condition",
abstract = "Background: Impairment of physical function is a major indicator of frailty. Functional performance tests have been shown to be useful for identification of frailty in older adults. However, these tests are often not translatable into unsupervised and remote monitoring of frailty status at home and/or community settings. Objective: In this study, we explored daily postural transition quantified using a chest-worn wearable technology to identify frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: Spontaneous daily physical activity was monitored over 24 h in 120 community-dwelling elderly (age: 78 ± 8 years) using an unobtrusive wearable sensor (PAMSys™, BioSensics LLC, Watertown, MA, USA). Participants were classified as non-frail and pre-frail/frail using Fried's criteria. A validated software package was used to identify body postures and postural transition between each independent postural activity such as sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand. The transition from walking to sitting was further classified as quick sitting and cautious sitting based on presence/absence of a standing posture pause between sitting and walking. A general linear model univariate test was used for between-group comparison. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the association between sensor-derived parameters and age. Logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictors of frailty. Results: According to Fried's criteria, 63{\%} of participants were pre-frail/frail. The total number of postural transitions, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand were, respectively, 25.2, 30.2, and 30.6{\%} lower in the pre-frail/frail group when compared to the non-frail group (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.73-0.79). Furthermore, the ratio of cautious sitting was significantly higher by 6.2{\%} in pre-frail/frail compared to non-frail (p = 0.025, Cohen's d = 0.22). Total number of postural transitions and the ratio of cautious sitting also showed significant negative and positive correlations with age, respectively (r = -0.51 and 0.29, p < 0.05). After applying a logistic regression model, among tested parameters, walk-to-stand (odds ratio [OR] = 0.997 p = 0.013), quick sitting (OR = 1.036, p = 0.05), and age (OR = 1.073, p = 0.016) were recognized as independent variables to identify frailty status. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that daily number of specific postural transitions such as walk-to-stand and quick sitting could be used for monitoring frailty status by unsupervised monitoring of daily physical activity. Further study is warranted to explore whether tracking the daily number of specific postural transitions is also sensitive to track change in the status of frailty over time.",
keywords = "Cautious sitting, Frailty, Physical activity, Postural transition, Quick sitting, Telehealth, Walking to sitting, Wearable sensor",
author = "Saman Parvaneh and Mohler, {Martha J} and Nima Toosizadeh and Grewal, {Gurtej Singh} and Bijan Najafi",
year = "2017",
month = "3",
day = "11",
doi = "10.1159/000460292",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Gerontology",
issn = "0304-324X",
publisher = "S. Karger AG",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Postural Transitions during Activities of Daily Living Could Identify Frailty Status

T2 - Application of Wearable Technology to Identify Frailty during Unsupervised Condition

AU - Parvaneh, Saman

AU - Mohler, Martha J

AU - Toosizadeh, Nima

AU - Grewal, Gurtej Singh

AU - Najafi, Bijan

PY - 2017/3/11

Y1 - 2017/3/11

N2 - Background: Impairment of physical function is a major indicator of frailty. Functional performance tests have been shown to be useful for identification of frailty in older adults. However, these tests are often not translatable into unsupervised and remote monitoring of frailty status at home and/or community settings. Objective: In this study, we explored daily postural transition quantified using a chest-worn wearable technology to identify frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: Spontaneous daily physical activity was monitored over 24 h in 120 community-dwelling elderly (age: 78 ± 8 years) using an unobtrusive wearable sensor (PAMSys™, BioSensics LLC, Watertown, MA, USA). Participants were classified as non-frail and pre-frail/frail using Fried's criteria. A validated software package was used to identify body postures and postural transition between each independent postural activity such as sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand. The transition from walking to sitting was further classified as quick sitting and cautious sitting based on presence/absence of a standing posture pause between sitting and walking. A general linear model univariate test was used for between-group comparison. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the association between sensor-derived parameters and age. Logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictors of frailty. Results: According to Fried's criteria, 63% of participants were pre-frail/frail. The total number of postural transitions, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand were, respectively, 25.2, 30.2, and 30.6% lower in the pre-frail/frail group when compared to the non-frail group (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.73-0.79). Furthermore, the ratio of cautious sitting was significantly higher by 6.2% in pre-frail/frail compared to non-frail (p = 0.025, Cohen's d = 0.22). Total number of postural transitions and the ratio of cautious sitting also showed significant negative and positive correlations with age, respectively (r = -0.51 and 0.29, p < 0.05). After applying a logistic regression model, among tested parameters, walk-to-stand (odds ratio [OR] = 0.997 p = 0.013), quick sitting (OR = 1.036, p = 0.05), and age (OR = 1.073, p = 0.016) were recognized as independent variables to identify frailty status. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that daily number of specific postural transitions such as walk-to-stand and quick sitting could be used for monitoring frailty status by unsupervised monitoring of daily physical activity. Further study is warranted to explore whether tracking the daily number of specific postural transitions is also sensitive to track change in the status of frailty over time.

AB - Background: Impairment of physical function is a major indicator of frailty. Functional performance tests have been shown to be useful for identification of frailty in older adults. However, these tests are often not translatable into unsupervised and remote monitoring of frailty status at home and/or community settings. Objective: In this study, we explored daily postural transition quantified using a chest-worn wearable technology to identify frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: Spontaneous daily physical activity was monitored over 24 h in 120 community-dwelling elderly (age: 78 ± 8 years) using an unobtrusive wearable sensor (PAMSys™, BioSensics LLC, Watertown, MA, USA). Participants were classified as non-frail and pre-frail/frail using Fried's criteria. A validated software package was used to identify body postures and postural transition between each independent postural activity such as sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand. The transition from walking to sitting was further classified as quick sitting and cautious sitting based on presence/absence of a standing posture pause between sitting and walking. A general linear model univariate test was used for between-group comparison. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the association between sensor-derived parameters and age. Logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictors of frailty. Results: According to Fried's criteria, 63% of participants were pre-frail/frail. The total number of postural transitions, stand-to-walk, and walk-to-stand were, respectively, 25.2, 30.2, and 30.6% lower in the pre-frail/frail group when compared to the non-frail group (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.73-0.79). Furthermore, the ratio of cautious sitting was significantly higher by 6.2% in pre-frail/frail compared to non-frail (p = 0.025, Cohen's d = 0.22). Total number of postural transitions and the ratio of cautious sitting also showed significant negative and positive correlations with age, respectively (r = -0.51 and 0.29, p < 0.05). After applying a logistic regression model, among tested parameters, walk-to-stand (odds ratio [OR] = 0.997 p = 0.013), quick sitting (OR = 1.036, p = 0.05), and age (OR = 1.073, p = 0.016) were recognized as independent variables to identify frailty status. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that daily number of specific postural transitions such as walk-to-stand and quick sitting could be used for monitoring frailty status by unsupervised monitoring of daily physical activity. Further study is warranted to explore whether tracking the daily number of specific postural transitions is also sensitive to track change in the status of frailty over time.

KW - Cautious sitting

KW - Frailty

KW - Physical activity

KW - Postural transition

KW - Quick sitting

KW - Telehealth

KW - Walking to sitting

KW - Wearable sensor

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