Predation by coyotes on white-tailed deer neonates in South Carolina

John C. Kilgo, H. Scott Ray, Mark Vukovich, Matthew J Goode, Charles Ruth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan-Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI=0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI=0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1420-1430
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Wildlife Management
Volume76
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Canis latrans
neonate
Odocoileus virginianus
deer
neonates
predation
Lynx rufus
mortality
survival rate
cause of death
river
fawns
population size
Southeastern United States
rate
predator
radio
death
predators
energy

Keywords

  • Canis latrans
  • coyote
  • fawn
  • mortality
  • neonate
  • Odocoileus virginianus
  • predation
  • Savannah River Site
  • South Carolina
  • survival
  • white-tailed deer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Ecology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Predation by coyotes on white-tailed deer neonates in South Carolina. / Kilgo, John C.; Ray, H. Scott; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Matthew J; Ruth, Charles.

In: Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 76, No. 7, 09.2012, p. 1420-1430.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kilgo, John C. ; Ray, H. Scott ; Vukovich, Mark ; Goode, Matthew J ; Ruth, Charles. / Predation by coyotes on white-tailed deer neonates in South Carolina. In: Journal of Wildlife Management. 2012 ; Vol. 76, No. 7. pp. 1420-1430.
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