Background: Most studies of pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in cystic fibrosis (CF) focus on intravenous (IV)-treated PEx, though most PEx are treated with oral antibiotics. Our objectives were to describe predictors of antibiotic choice and outcomes for PEx initially identified in clinic. Methods: For each patient in the U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry, we selected the first PEx recorded at a clinic visit in 2013–14 following a clinic visit without a PEx. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine associations between clinical characteristics and antibiotic treatment choice. We determined outcomes in the 90 days after the first PEx. Results: Among 14,265 patients with a PEx initially identified in clinic, 21.4% received no antibiotics, 61.5% received new oral and/or inhaled antibiotics, and 17.0% had IV antibiotics within 14 days. Compared to IV antibiotics, patients more likely to receive new oral and/or inhaled antibiotics: were male, <13 years old, had BMI >10th percentile or 18.5 kg/m2, >90 days between clinic visits, FEV1 > 70% predicted at the PEx, no prior-year IV-treated PEx, FEV1 decline <10% predicted, and private insurance. Following the PEx, 30.3% of patients had no clinical encounters within 90 days. Treatment with IV antibiotics within 90 days occurred for 23.7% treated without antibiotics, 22.8% of new oral and/or inhaled antibiotics, and 27.1% of IV antibiotics. Conclusion: Most PEx identified in clinic are treated with new oral and/or inhaled antibiotics. Markers of disease severity are associated with antibiotic treatment choice. Many patients had no follow-up evaluation within 90 days of treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine