Objectives: β-Blocker use is associated with fewer cardiac complications in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery and is a quality metric for coronary artery bypass grafting. We sought to determine the influence of preoperative β-blocker administration before aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods: All patients undergoing isolated AVR from 2002 to 2016 were extracted from a multi-institutional, statewide database composed of Society of Thoracic Surgeons data. Patients were propensity score matched by preoperative and operative variables, and the effects of preoperative β-blockers on outcomes were assessed. Results: Of 7380 eligible patients, 53% received a preoperative β-blocker. After propensity matching, a total of 4592 patients were well matched (1:1) with minimal baseline differences between groups. Within the matched cohort, the operative mortality rate (β-blocker: 2.8% vs no β-blocker: 2.4%; P = .454) and rate of major morbidity (14.4% vs 12.7%; P = .101) were similar between groups. The rates of cardiac arrest (2.1% vs 1.3%; P = .034), renal failure requiring dialysis (1.7% vs 0.9%; P = .007), and postoperative transfusion (38.2% vs 33.8%; P = .002) after AVR were significantly greater in the cohort receiving preoperative β-blockade. Postoperative atrial fibrillation was also more prevalent in patients receiving a preoperative β-blocker (26.9% vs 23.4%; P = .007). Finally, preoperative β-blocker use was associated with longer postoperative intensive care unit stays (45.2 vs 47.0 hours; P = .001), but clinically similar hospital length of stay. Conclusions: Preoperative β-blocker administration is not associated with improved outcomes after AVR but instead is associated with increased postoperative morbidity. Routinely initiating preoperative β-blockade is not supported in patients undergoing AVR.
- aortic valve replacement
- perioperative management
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine