Primary care screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in adults: Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force

Leila C. Kahwati, Cynthia Feltner, Michael Halpern, Carol L. Woodell, Erin Boland, Halle R. Amick, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Daniel E. Jonas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

IMPORTANCE Five to ten percent of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progress to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Identifying and treating LTBI is a key component of the strategy for reducing the burden of TB disease. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence about targeted screening and treatment for LTBI among adults in primary care settings to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 1996 recommendation. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries, searched through August 3, 2015; references from pertinent articles; and experts. Literature surveillance was conducted through May 31, 2016. STUDY SELECTION English-language studies of LTBI screening, LTBI treatment with recommended pharmacotherapy, or accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Studies of individuals for whom LTBI screening and treatment is part of public health surveillance or disease management were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles. When at least 3 similar studies were available, random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates of outcomes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sensitivity, specificity, reliability, active TB disease, mortality, hepatotoxicity, and other harms. RESULTS The review included 72 studies (n = 51 711). No studies evaluated benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening. Pooled estimates for sensitivity of the TST at both 5-mm and 10-mm induration thresholds were 0.79 (5-mm: 95%CI, 0.69-0.89 [8 studies, n = 803]; 10 mm: 95%CI, 0.71-0.87 [11 studies; n = 988]), and those for IGRAs ranged from 0.77 to 0.90 (57 studies; n = 4378). Pooled estimates for specificity of the TST at the 10-mm and 15-mm thresholds and for IGRAs ranged from 0.95 to 0.99 (34 studies; n = 23 853). A randomized clinical trial (RCT) of 24 weeks of isoniazid in individuals with pulmonary fibrotic lesions and LTBI (n = 27 830) found a reduction in absolute risk of active TB at 5 years from 1.4%to 0.5%(relative risk [RR], 0.35 [95%CI, 0.24-0.52]) and an increase in absolute risk for hepatoxicity from 0.1% to 0.5%(RR, 4.59 [95%CI, 2.03-10.39]) for 24 weeks of daily isoniazid compared with placebo. An RCT (n = 6886) found that 3 months of once-weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid was noninferior to 9 months of isoniazid alone for preventing active TB. The risk difference for hepatoxicity comparing isoniazid with rifampin ranged from 3%to 7%, with a pooled RR of 3.29 (95%CI, 1.72-6.28 [3 RCTs; n = 1327]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE No studies evaluated the benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening. Both the TST and IGRAs are moderately sensitive and highly specific within countries with low TB burden. Treatment reduced the risk of active TB among the populations included in this review. Isoniazid is associated with higher rates of hepatotoxicity than placebo or rifampin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)970-983
Number of pages14
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume316
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Latent Tuberculosis
Advisory Committees
Isoniazid
Interferon-gamma Release Tests
Primary Health Care
Tuberculosis
Tuberculin Test
Skin Tests
rifapentine
Rifampin
Therapeutics
Randomized Controlled Trials
Placebos
Public Health Surveillance
Numbers Needed To Treat
Disease Management
MEDLINE
Libraries
Registries
Meta-Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Primary care screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in adults : Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. / Kahwati, Leila C.; Feltner, Cynthia; Halpern, Michael; Woodell, Carol L.; Boland, Erin; Amick, Halle R.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Jonas, Daniel E.

In: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 316, No. 9, 2016, p. 970-983.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Kahwati, Leila C. ; Feltner, Cynthia ; Halpern, Michael ; Woodell, Carol L. ; Boland, Erin ; Amick, Halle R. ; Weber, Rachel Palmieri ; Jonas, Daniel E. / Primary care screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in adults : Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. In: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016 ; Vol. 316, No. 9. pp. 970-983.
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abstract = "IMPORTANCE Five to ten percent of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progress to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Identifying and treating LTBI is a key component of the strategy for reducing the burden of TB disease. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence about targeted screening and treatment for LTBI among adults in primary care settings to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 1996 recommendation. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries, searched through August 3, 2015; references from pertinent articles; and experts. Literature surveillance was conducted through May 31, 2016. STUDY SELECTION English-language studies of LTBI screening, LTBI treatment with recommended pharmacotherapy, or accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Studies of individuals for whom LTBI screening and treatment is part of public health surveillance or disease management were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles. When at least 3 similar studies were available, random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates of outcomes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sensitivity, specificity, reliability, active TB disease, mortality, hepatotoxicity, and other harms. RESULTS The review included 72 studies (n = 51 711). No studies evaluated benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening. Pooled estimates for sensitivity of the TST at both 5-mm and 10-mm induration thresholds were 0.79 (5-mm: 95{\%}CI, 0.69-0.89 [8 studies, n = 803]; 10 mm: 95{\%}CI, 0.71-0.87 [11 studies; n = 988]), and those for IGRAs ranged from 0.77 to 0.90 (57 studies; n = 4378). Pooled estimates for specificity of the TST at the 10-mm and 15-mm thresholds and for IGRAs ranged from 0.95 to 0.99 (34 studies; n = 23 853). A randomized clinical trial (RCT) of 24 weeks of isoniazid in individuals with pulmonary fibrotic lesions and LTBI (n = 27 830) found a reduction in absolute risk of active TB at 5 years from 1.4{\%}to 0.5{\%}(relative risk [RR], 0.35 [95{\%}CI, 0.24-0.52]) and an increase in absolute risk for hepatoxicity from 0.1{\%} to 0.5{\%}(RR, 4.59 [95{\%}CI, 2.03-10.39]) for 24 weeks of daily isoniazid compared with placebo. An RCT (n = 6886) found that 3 months of once-weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid was noninferior to 9 months of isoniazid alone for preventing active TB. The risk difference for hepatoxicity comparing isoniazid with rifampin ranged from 3{\%}to 7{\%}, with a pooled RR of 3.29 (95{\%}CI, 1.72-6.28 [3 RCTs; n = 1327]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE No studies evaluated the benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening. Both the TST and IGRAs are moderately sensitive and highly specific within countries with low TB burden. Treatment reduced the risk of active TB among the populations included in this review. Isoniazid is associated with higher rates of hepatotoxicity than placebo or rifampin.",
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T1 - Primary care screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection in adults

T2 - Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force

AU - Kahwati, Leila C.

AU - Feltner, Cynthia

AU - Halpern, Michael

AU - Woodell, Carol L.

AU - Boland, Erin

AU - Amick, Halle R.

AU - Weber, Rachel Palmieri

AU - Jonas, Daniel E.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - IMPORTANCE Five to ten percent of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progress to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Identifying and treating LTBI is a key component of the strategy for reducing the burden of TB disease. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence about targeted screening and treatment for LTBI among adults in primary care settings to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 1996 recommendation. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries, searched through August 3, 2015; references from pertinent articles; and experts. Literature surveillance was conducted through May 31, 2016. STUDY SELECTION English-language studies of LTBI screening, LTBI treatment with recommended pharmacotherapy, or accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Studies of individuals for whom LTBI screening and treatment is part of public health surveillance or disease management were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles. When at least 3 similar studies were available, random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates of outcomes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sensitivity, specificity, reliability, active TB disease, mortality, hepatotoxicity, and other harms. RESULTS The review included 72 studies (n = 51 711). No studies evaluated benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening. Pooled estimates for sensitivity of the TST at both 5-mm and 10-mm induration thresholds were 0.79 (5-mm: 95%CI, 0.69-0.89 [8 studies, n = 803]; 10 mm: 95%CI, 0.71-0.87 [11 studies; n = 988]), and those for IGRAs ranged from 0.77 to 0.90 (57 studies; n = 4378). Pooled estimates for specificity of the TST at the 10-mm and 15-mm thresholds and for IGRAs ranged from 0.95 to 0.99 (34 studies; n = 23 853). A randomized clinical trial (RCT) of 24 weeks of isoniazid in individuals with pulmonary fibrotic lesions and LTBI (n = 27 830) found a reduction in absolute risk of active TB at 5 years from 1.4%to 0.5%(relative risk [RR], 0.35 [95%CI, 0.24-0.52]) and an increase in absolute risk for hepatoxicity from 0.1% to 0.5%(RR, 4.59 [95%CI, 2.03-10.39]) for 24 weeks of daily isoniazid compared with placebo. An RCT (n = 6886) found that 3 months of once-weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid was noninferior to 9 months of isoniazid alone for preventing active TB. The risk difference for hepatoxicity comparing isoniazid with rifampin ranged from 3%to 7%, with a pooled RR of 3.29 (95%CI, 1.72-6.28 [3 RCTs; n = 1327]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE No studies evaluated the benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening. Both the TST and IGRAs are moderately sensitive and highly specific within countries with low TB burden. Treatment reduced the risk of active TB among the populations included in this review. Isoniazid is associated with higher rates of hepatotoxicity than placebo or rifampin.

AB - IMPORTANCE Five to ten percent of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progress to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Identifying and treating LTBI is a key component of the strategy for reducing the burden of TB disease. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence about targeted screening and treatment for LTBI among adults in primary care settings to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 1996 recommendation. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries, searched through August 3, 2015; references from pertinent articles; and experts. Literature surveillance was conducted through May 31, 2016. STUDY SELECTION English-language studies of LTBI screening, LTBI treatment with recommended pharmacotherapy, or accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Studies of individuals for whom LTBI screening and treatment is part of public health surveillance or disease management were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles. When at least 3 similar studies were available, random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates of outcomes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sensitivity, specificity, reliability, active TB disease, mortality, hepatotoxicity, and other harms. RESULTS The review included 72 studies (n = 51 711). No studies evaluated benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening. Pooled estimates for sensitivity of the TST at both 5-mm and 10-mm induration thresholds were 0.79 (5-mm: 95%CI, 0.69-0.89 [8 studies, n = 803]; 10 mm: 95%CI, 0.71-0.87 [11 studies; n = 988]), and those for IGRAs ranged from 0.77 to 0.90 (57 studies; n = 4378). Pooled estimates for specificity of the TST at the 10-mm and 15-mm thresholds and for IGRAs ranged from 0.95 to 0.99 (34 studies; n = 23 853). A randomized clinical trial (RCT) of 24 weeks of isoniazid in individuals with pulmonary fibrotic lesions and LTBI (n = 27 830) found a reduction in absolute risk of active TB at 5 years from 1.4%to 0.5%(relative risk [RR], 0.35 [95%CI, 0.24-0.52]) and an increase in absolute risk for hepatoxicity from 0.1% to 0.5%(RR, 4.59 [95%CI, 2.03-10.39]) for 24 weeks of daily isoniazid compared with placebo. An RCT (n = 6886) found that 3 months of once-weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid was noninferior to 9 months of isoniazid alone for preventing active TB. The risk difference for hepatoxicity comparing isoniazid with rifampin ranged from 3%to 7%, with a pooled RR of 3.29 (95%CI, 1.72-6.28 [3 RCTs; n = 1327]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE No studies evaluated the benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening. Both the TST and IGRAs are moderately sensitive and highly specific within countries with low TB burden. Treatment reduced the risk of active TB among the populations included in this review. Isoniazid is associated with higher rates of hepatotoxicity than placebo or rifampin.

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