Probing the evolution of infrared properties of z ∼ 6 quasars: Spitzer observations

Linhua Jiang, Xiaohui Fan, Dean C. Hines, Yong Shi, Marianne Vestergaard, Frank Bertoldi, W. N. Brandt, Chris L. Carilli, Pierre Cox, Emeric Le Floc'h, Laura Pentericci, Gordon T. Richards, George H. Rieke, Donald P. Schneider, Michael A. Strauss, Fabian Walter, J. Brinkmann

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Abstract

We present Spitzer observations of 13 z ∼ 6 quasars using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). All the quasars except SDSS J000552.34-000655.8 (SDSS J0005-0006) were detected with high signal-to-noise ratio in the four IRAC channels and the MIPS 24 μm band, while SDSS J0005-0006 was marginally detected in the IRAC 8.0 μm band and not detected in the MIPS 24 μm band. We find that most of these quasars have prominent emission from hot dust, as evidenced by the observed 24 μm fluxes. Their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are similar to those of low-redshift quasars at rest frame 0.15-3.5 μm, suggesting that accretion disks and hot-dust structures for these sources have already reached maturity. However, SDSS J0005-0006 has an unusual SED that lies significantly below low-redshift SED templates at rest frame 1 and 3.5 μm and thus shows a strong near-IR (NIR) deficit and no hot-dust emission. Type I quasars with extremely small NIR-to-optical flux ratios such as SDSS J0005-0006 are not found in low-redshift quasar samples, indicating that SDSS J0005-0006 has different dust properties at high redshift. We combine the Spitzer observations with X-ray, UV/optical, millimeter/submillimeter, and radio observations to determine bolometric luminosities for all the quasars. We find that the four quasars with central black hole mass measurements have Eddington ratios of order unity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2127-2134
Number of pages8
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume132
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2006

Fingerprint

quasars
photometer
dust
spectral energy distribution
photometers
energy
cameras
signal-to-noise ratio
accretion
radio
radio observation
accretion disks
distribution
unity
signal to noise ratios
templates
luminosity
x rays

Keywords

  • Galaxies: active
  • Infrared: galaxies
  • Quasars: general
  • Quasars: individual (SDSS J000552.34-000655.8)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Jiang, L., Fan, X., Hines, D. C., Shi, Y., Vestergaard, M., Bertoldi, F., ... Brinkmann, J. (2006). Probing the evolution of infrared properties of z ∼ 6 quasars: Spitzer observations. Astronomical Journal, 132(5), 2127-2134. https://doi.org/10.1086/508209

Probing the evolution of infrared properties of z ∼ 6 quasars : Spitzer observations. / Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Hines, Dean C.; Shi, Yong; Vestergaard, Marianne; Bertoldi, Frank; Brandt, W. N.; Carilli, Chris L.; Cox, Pierre; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Pentericci, Laura; Richards, Gordon T.; Rieke, George H.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Walter, Fabian; Brinkmann, J.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 132, No. 5, 11.2006, p. 2127-2134.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jiang, L, Fan, X, Hines, DC, Shi, Y, Vestergaard, M, Bertoldi, F, Brandt, WN, Carilli, CL, Cox, P, Le Floc'h, E, Pentericci, L, Richards, GT, Rieke, GH, Schneider, DP, Strauss, MA, Walter, F & Brinkmann, J 2006, 'Probing the evolution of infrared properties of z ∼ 6 quasars: Spitzer observations', Astronomical Journal, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 2127-2134. https://doi.org/10.1086/508209
Jiang, Linhua ; Fan, Xiaohui ; Hines, Dean C. ; Shi, Yong ; Vestergaard, Marianne ; Bertoldi, Frank ; Brandt, W. N. ; Carilli, Chris L. ; Cox, Pierre ; Le Floc'h, Emeric ; Pentericci, Laura ; Richards, Gordon T. ; Rieke, George H. ; Schneider, Donald P. ; Strauss, Michael A. ; Walter, Fabian ; Brinkmann, J. / Probing the evolution of infrared properties of z ∼ 6 quasars : Spitzer observations. In: Astronomical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 132, No. 5. pp. 2127-2134.
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abstract = "We present Spitzer observations of 13 z ∼ 6 quasars using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). All the quasars except SDSS J000552.34-000655.8 (SDSS J0005-0006) were detected with high signal-to-noise ratio in the four IRAC channels and the MIPS 24 μm band, while SDSS J0005-0006 was marginally detected in the IRAC 8.0 μm band and not detected in the MIPS 24 μm band. We find that most of these quasars have prominent emission from hot dust, as evidenced by the observed 24 μm fluxes. Their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are similar to those of low-redshift quasars at rest frame 0.15-3.5 μm, suggesting that accretion disks and hot-dust structures for these sources have already reached maturity. However, SDSS J0005-0006 has an unusual SED that lies significantly below low-redshift SED templates at rest frame 1 and 3.5 μm and thus shows a strong near-IR (NIR) deficit and no hot-dust emission. Type I quasars with extremely small NIR-to-optical flux ratios such as SDSS J0005-0006 are not found in low-redshift quasar samples, indicating that SDSS J0005-0006 has different dust properties at high redshift. We combine the Spitzer observations with X-ray, UV/optical, millimeter/submillimeter, and radio observations to determine bolometric luminosities for all the quasars. We find that the four quasars with central black hole mass measurements have Eddington ratios of order unity.",
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AU - Jiang, Linhua

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AU - Hines, Dean C.

AU - Shi, Yong

AU - Vestergaard, Marianne

AU - Bertoldi, Frank

AU - Brandt, W. N.

AU - Carilli, Chris L.

AU - Cox, Pierre

AU - Le Floc'h, Emeric

AU - Pentericci, Laura

AU - Richards, Gordon T.

AU - Rieke, George H.

AU - Schneider, Donald P.

AU - Strauss, Michael A.

AU - Walter, Fabian

AU - Brinkmann, J.

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N2 - We present Spitzer observations of 13 z ∼ 6 quasars using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). All the quasars except SDSS J000552.34-000655.8 (SDSS J0005-0006) were detected with high signal-to-noise ratio in the four IRAC channels and the MIPS 24 μm band, while SDSS J0005-0006 was marginally detected in the IRAC 8.0 μm band and not detected in the MIPS 24 μm band. We find that most of these quasars have prominent emission from hot dust, as evidenced by the observed 24 μm fluxes. Their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are similar to those of low-redshift quasars at rest frame 0.15-3.5 μm, suggesting that accretion disks and hot-dust structures for these sources have already reached maturity. However, SDSS J0005-0006 has an unusual SED that lies significantly below low-redshift SED templates at rest frame 1 and 3.5 μm and thus shows a strong near-IR (NIR) deficit and no hot-dust emission. Type I quasars with extremely small NIR-to-optical flux ratios such as SDSS J0005-0006 are not found in low-redshift quasar samples, indicating that SDSS J0005-0006 has different dust properties at high redshift. We combine the Spitzer observations with X-ray, UV/optical, millimeter/submillimeter, and radio observations to determine bolometric luminosities for all the quasars. We find that the four quasars with central black hole mass measurements have Eddington ratios of order unity.

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